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I. SPICILIGIUM FILICUM PHILIPPINENSIUM NOVA- 
RUM AUT IMPERFECTE COGNITARUM 

II. THE PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS 



By H. Christ 
(Basel, Switzerland) 



Reprinted from 

THE PHILIPPINE JOURNAL OF SCIENGE 

Pubiished by fhe Bureau of Science of the Philippine Government, Manila, P. I. 

VoL. II, No. 2, SECTroN G, Botany. June, 1907 



MANILA 
BUREAU OF PRINTING 
1907 
56576 



PREVIOUS PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF GOVERNMENT 

LABORATORIES. 



No. 1, 1902, Bioloc/ical Lahoratory. — Preliminary Report of the Appearance in the Phil- 
ippine Islands of a Disease Clinically Resembling Glanders. By R. P. Strong, M. D. 

No. 2, 1902, Chcmical Lahoratory. — The Preparation of Benzoyl-Acetyl Peroxide and Its 
Use as an Intestinal Antiseptic in Cholera and Dysentery. Preliminary Notes. By Paul 
C. Freer, M. D., Ph. D. 

A'o. S, 1903, liiological Lahoralory. — A Prelimiuary Report on Trypanosomiasis of Horses 
iu the Philippine Islands. By W. E. Musgrave, M. D., and Norman E. Williamson. 

No. 1). 1903, Scrum Laboratory. — Preliminary Report on the Study of Cattle and Cara- 
baos iu the Philippine Islands. By James W. Jobling, M. D. 

No. 5, 1903, Biological Laboratory. — Trypanosoma and Trypanosomiasi.s, with Special 
lleference to Surra iri the Philippine Islahds. By W. E. Musgrave, M. D., and Moses T. 
Clegg. 

No. 6, 1903. — New or Noteworthy Plants, I. The American Element in the Philippine 
Flora. By Blmer D. Merrill, Botanist. (Issued January 20, 1904.) 

No. 7, 1903, Chemical Laboratory.- — The Gutta Percha and Rubber of the Philippine 
Islands. By Penoyer L. Sherman, jr., Ph. D. 

No. 8, 1903. — A Dictionary ot the Plant Names of the Philippine I.sland.s. By Elmer D. 
Merrill, Botanist. 

No. 9, 1903, Bioloijical and Serum Laboratories — A Report on Hgemorrhagic Septicaemia 
In Animals in the Philippine Islands. By Paul G. Woolley, M. D., and J. W. .Tobling, M. D. 

No. 10, 1903, Biological Laboratory.- — Two Cases of a Peculiar Form of Hand Infection 
(Due to an Organism Resembling the Koch-Weeks Bacillus). By John R. McDill, M. D., 
and Wm. B. Wherry, M. D. 

No. 11, 1903, Bioloqical Laboratory. — Entomological Division, Bulletin No. 1 : Prelimi- 
nary Bulletin on Insects of the Cacao. (Prepared Especially for the Benefit of Farmers.) 
By Charles S. Bauks, Eutomologist. 

No. 12, 1903, Biological Laboratory. — Report on Some Pulmonary Lesions Produced by 
the Bacillus of Haemorrhagic Septicsemia of Carabaos. By Paul G. Woolley, M. D. 

No. 13, 190Jf, Bioloaical Laboratory.—A Fatal Infection by a Hitherto Undescribed 
Chromogenic Bacteriuni: Bacillus Aureus Foetidus. By Maximiliau Herzog, M. D. * 

No. IJi, 190Ji. — Scrum Laboratory : Texas Fever in the Philippine Islands and the Far 
Bast. By J. W. Jobliug, M. D., and Paul G. Woolley, M. D. Biological Laboratory : 
Entomological Division, Bulletin No. 2: The Australian Tick ( Boophilois Australis Puller) 
in the Phillppine Islands. By Charles S. Banks, Entomologist. 

No. 15, 190Jf, Biological and Serum Laboratories. — Report on Bacillus Vlolaceus Ma- 
nilse : A Pathogenic Micro-Organism. By Paul G. Woolley, M. D. 

No. 16, 190Jf, Biological Laboratory . — Protective Inoculation Against Asiatic Cholera : 
Au Experimental Study. By Richard P. Strong, M. D. 

No. 17, 190Jf. — New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants, II. By Elmer D. Merrill, Botanist. 

No. 18, 190Jf, Biological Laboratory. — I. Amebas : Their Cultivation and Etiologic Sig- 
niflcauce. By W. E. Musgrave, M. D., and Moses T. Clegg. II. The Treatment of Intes- 
tinal Amoebiasis (Amcebic Dysentery) in the Tropics. By W. E. Musgrave, M. D. 

No. 19, 190Jf, Biological Lahoratory.Some Observations on the Biology of the Cholera 
Spirillum. By W. B. Wherry, M. D. 

No. 20, 190Jf. — Biological Lahoratory : I. Does Latent or Dormaut Plague Exist Where 
the Disease is Endemic? By Maximilian Herzog, M. D., and Charles B. Hare. Serum 
Laboratory : II. Broncho-Pueumonia of Cattle : Its Association with B. Bovisepticus. 
By Paul G. Woolley, M. D., and Walter Sorrell, D. V. S. III. Pinto (Pafio Blanco). By 
Paul G. Woolley, M. D. Chcmical Laboratory : IV. Notes on Analysis of the Water from 
the Manila Water Supply. By Charles L. Bliss, M. S. Seruni Laboratory : V. Framboesia : 
Its Occurrence in Natives in the Phillppine Islands. By Paul G. Woolley, M. D. 

No. 21, 190Jf, Bioloffical Laboratory. — Some Questions Relating to the Virulence of 
Micro-Organisms with Particular Reference to Their Immunizing Powers. By Richard 
P. Strong, M. D. 

No. 22, 190Jf, Bureau of Gorernment Laboratories. — I. A Description of the New Build- 
ings of the Bureau of Government Laboratories. By Paul C. Freer, M. D., Ph. D. II. A 
Catalogue of the Library of the Bureau of Government Laboratories. By Mary Polk, 
Librarian. 

No. 23, 190Jf, Biological Laboratory. — Plague : Bacteriology, Morbid Anatomy, and His- 
topathology (Including a Consideration of Insects as Plague Carriers). By Maximilian 
Herzog, M. D. 

No. '>.Jf, 190Jf, Biological Laboratory. — Glanders : Its Diagnosis and Prevention (Together 
with a Report on Two Cases of Human Glanders Occurring in Manila and Some Notes on 
the Ba^tteriology and Polymorphism of Bacterium Mallei). By William B. Wherry, 
M. D. 

No. 25, 190Jf.^ — Birds from the Islands of Romblon, Sibuyan, and Cresta de Gallo. By 
Richard C. McGregor. 

No. 26, 190Jf, Biolonical Lahoratory. — The Clinical and Pathological Signiflcance ot 
Balantidium Coli. By Riehard P. Strong, M. D. 

No. 27, 190Jf. — A Review of the Identiflcation of the Species Described in Blanco's Flora 
de Filipinas. By Elmer D. Merrill, Botanist. 

No. 28, 190Jf. — I. The Polypodiacea» of the Philippine Islands. .II. Edible Philippine 
Fungi. By Edwin B. Copeland, Ph. D. 

No. 29, 190Jt. — I. New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants, III. II. The Source of Manila 
Elemi. By Elmer D. Merrill, Botanist. 

No. 30, 1905, Chemical Lahoratory. — I. Autocatalytic Decomposition of Silver Oxide. 
11. Hydration in Solution. By Gilbert N. Lewis, Ph. D. 

No. 31, 1905, Biological Laboratory. — I. Notes on a Case of Haematochyluria (Together 
witli Some Observations on the Morphology of the Embryo Nematode, FilaTia Nocturna). 
Hy William B. Wherry, M. D., and John R. McDill, M. D., Manila, P. I. II. A Search 
Into tho Nitrate and Nitrite Content of Witte's "Peptone," with Special Reference to Its 
influence on the Demonstration of the Indol and Cholera-Red Reactions. By William B. 
Wherry, M, D, 

(Cnucluded on tliird page ot cover.) 



T^ 



LIBRA!^Y 

BOTANiCAL 

THE PHILIPPINE Qari^^en 



JOURNAL OF SCIENCE 

C. BOTANY 



VoL. II JUXE, 1907 No. 3 



SPICILIGIUM FILICUM PHILIPPINENSIUM NOVARUM AUT 
IMPERFECTE COGNITARUM. 



By H.^ CpBiST. 
( Basel, Switzerland. ) 



In the collections of Philippine ferns sent me by Elmcv D. MerriU, 
Botanist, of the Bnreau of Science, and by Dr. E. B. Copeland, which have 
increased in an unexpected manner since the year 1903, I have distin- 
guished very many forms not considered by Dr. Copeland in his papers on 
Philippine ferns,^ and which are not included in my two works on the 
fern flora of the Archipelago.- 

At the request of Mr. Merrill, 1 have prepared a list for publication in 
The Philippine Journal of Science, eontaining the diagnoses of those 
species that appear to me to be undescribed, and observations on others 
which for one reason or another are of special interest. I wish to express 
my sincere thanks to Messrs. Lolier, CopeJand and Merrill for having 
with great lil)erality supplied me with the rich material that has enabled 
me to undertake this work. 

Cuming's collection is the l^asis of our knowledge of the pteridophyte 
flora of the Philippines, and of which J. Smith^ published a list of 
species, however, unfortunatcly, containing many almost noniina nuda. 

^Ferns, in Perk. Frafj. Fl. Pliilip. (190.5) 175-194; Polypocliace:e of the Pliilip- 
pine Islands, Govt. Lab. Fnbl. 28 (1905) 7-138; New Pliilippine Ferns. This 
Joumal 1 (1906) Suppl. 143-166; New Philippine Ferns, II, l. c. 251-257; A New 
22 Polypodiiim and Two Xew Varieties, Elmer's Leaflets Philip. Bot. (1906) 78, 79. 
(^ 'Filices Insularum Philippinarum, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6 (1898) 127-154; 189- 

^ 210;II. i. c. 6 (1906) 987-1011. 

' 'Enumeratio Filicum Philippinarum in Lojjd. Joiini. Bo^ 3 (1841) 392-422. 

rj 54744 153 



1 54 ciiiusT. 

l'n'sl lias (lescribed many of tlic spccie.s represented in (himinf/s eol- 
lection* in a masterly nianner, biit perhaps has carried the separation 
of species a littlc too far in somc cases, altliough his obscrvations are very 
exact and his dcscriptions vcry clear. In working on Philippine ferns,, 
it is always necessary to consnlt this worlv in detemiining whether or not 
a species has been described. 

HYMENOPHYLLUM Smith. 

1. Hymenophyllum Merrillii n. sp. 

Leptocionium, ex afhnitate II. holochili (v. d. B.) C. Chr., Javanici, 
caespitosum, minus, laciniis breviorilms, colore atrofusco, textura crassiore: 

Ehizomate filiformi repente caespitoso, cum stipite rhacliique pilis 
rufis brevibus parce vestito, stipite filifornii 3 cm. longo, fronde ovata 
acuminata vcrsus basin attenuata 6 cm. longa, 2 cm. lata, Inpinnatifida, 
pinnis confcrtis ca. 8 utrinque, cuneato-ovatis anticc acutis sessilibus nec 
adnatis infimis petiolulatis 6 mm. latis profunde pinnatifidis, segmentis 
cuneato-obtusis 3 utrinquc, profunde laciniatis, laciniis lanceolatis 2 
mm. latis scrrulato-dcntatis planis, rhachi haud alata, soris infiraae 
laciniae antcriori pinnarum insidcntibus, pro pinna solitariis, 3 aut 4 
utroque rhaclicos latcre, ovatis, 2.5 mm. longis, apiee bivalvatis ser- 
rulatis, rcccptaculo crasso valde exserto. Colore atrofusco. Textura 
rigidiuscula. 

LuzoN, Province of Pampanga, Mount Aiayat (3927 Merrill) October, 1904; 
Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (Loher) Marcli, 1897, alt. 1,400 m. 

2. Hymenophyllum serrulatum (Presl) C. Chr. Ind. 3G7 (//. Smithii Hook. 
Sp. Fil. 1: 97. Tah. 35 B). 

A species peculiar in the section Leptocionium by the valves of tlie sori being 
entire or very slightly dentate. A large species with ovate fronds 13 cm. long, 
7 cm. broad, the stipes 8 cm. hmg. It appears to be one of the most widely 
distributed species of the genus in tlie Pliilippines. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (3233 Mcrrill) October, 1903; 
(165, 443, Whitford) May, July, 1904; (208 Copclaml) January, 1904; Province 
of Tayabas, Mount Banajao (918 Whitford) October, 1904; Province of Rizal, 
Angilog (Loher) March, 1906. Negros, Mount Silay (1509 Whitford) May, 1906. 

The same species has been found in Perak (leg. Hosc) ; the plant reported 
from Celebes under this name is doubtful. 

3. Hymenophyllum thuidium Harringt. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 16 (1877) 
26; Christ in Schum. und Lauterb. Nachtr. Fl. Deutscii. Scliutsgeb. Siidsee 1 : 34. 

A large very elegant species, all tlie foliaceous parts finely crisped and at the 
sanie time dentate-aristate. Very diaphanous, the sori sniall, globose, darlv brown, 
terminal, the valves entire. Stipe 6 cm. long; frond 10 cm. long, 5 cm. wide. 

MiNDANAO, vSan Ramon at 800 m. alt. (1751 Copeland) April, 1905; Mount 
Apo, at 1,800 m. alt. (1441 Copcland) October, 1905. 

Very nearly the same species is found in the Bismark Mountains, German New 
Guinea, leg Schlechter 14030, wliich I have called H. Bismarkianum. 

■* Epimeliae botanicae (1849). 



SPICILIGIUM FILICUM PHILIPPINENSIUM, 155 

4. Hymenophyllum aculeatum (v. d. Bosch Hym. Jav. Tah. 31, Leptocio- 
nium) Racib. Pter. Buitenz. 21. 

Luzox, Province of Bataan, Mount MariAcles (209 Copcland) Januarv, 1904; 
(3231 McrriU) October, 1903; Province of Tayabas, Mount Banajao (921 Whit- 
ford) October, 1904. Mindanao, Province of Surigao (2G8 Bolsfcr) March, 190(i. 

Identical with speciniens from Mount Salak, Java, leg. Raciborski. It is the 
species enunierated in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6: 141, as U. Neesii. 

5. Hymenophylium campanulatum n. sp. 

Leptocionium. Habitu omino II. Tunbndgensis, valvis integris, rhachi 
hispida. 

Dense et late caespitosuni, rhizoniate tenui sed rigido raniosissimo. 
stipite rhachique nigris, pili? rigidis hispidis, stipite 1.5 cm. tenui, frond? 
4 cm. longa 1 cm. lata l)ipinnatifida oblonga, basi et apice attenuata, 
pinnis ca. 6 utrinque arcuato-reflexis, alternis, 1 cm. longis, flabellato- 
partitis, laciniis 4 aut 5, linearibus, vix 1 mm. latis, parce aristato-serratis. 
Soris raris, prope basin costae positis, peduuculatis, campanulatis, valvis 
erecto-patentibus ovatis, 3 mm. longis. Textura rigidiuscula. Colore 
fusco. 

Negkos, Mount Silay (1549 Whitford) May, 1900, alt. 1,100 m. 

6. Hymenophyllum pycnocarpum v. d. Bosch Hyni. Jav. Tah. 37. 

Laeve. Fronde ovata, tripinnatilida, rhachi alata. soris terininalibus 
paniculatis, valvis trigono-acutis. 

Luzox, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Lohcr) January, 1890, January, 
1906; Province of Tayabas, Mount Banajao (922 Whitford) October, 1904. 

HymenophyUnm suhdemissum Christ, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6 (1898) 140, should 
be united witli this species. 

7. Hymenophyllum Blumeanum Sprcngcl, Syst. Veg. 4: 131. 

Luzox, Provincc of Bataan, Mount ^lariveles (3232 McrriU) October, 1903, the 
lanceolate form figured by Van dcn Bosch Hymen. Jav. Tah. 36, 2. H. polyaiithos 
Christ (non Sw.) Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6 (1898) 139, should be referred here. 

8. Hymenophyllum paniculiflorum Presl, Hymen. (1843) 32, 55. 

A small plant recognizable by its large sori which are ovoid or globose, 
terminal and occupying all the segments at the svunniit of the frond. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, ^Mount Tonglon, 2.250 ni. alt. (Lohcr) April, 1904. 
Identical with specimens from Java, leg. Giesenhagcn and Raciborski, and with 
specimens from Japan, leg. Fanric. 

I am now of the opinion that H. discosinn Christ, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6 (1898) 
140, should be united with this species, although the sori are much broader and 
more round than those in the Javan plant, leg. Giescnhaycn. 

9. Hymenophyllum demissum (Forst.) Sw. in Schrad. Journ. 1800' (1801) 
100. 

Luzox, Provincc of Tayabas, ]\Iount Banajao (Lohcr) February. 1900. 

This plant is identical with the form found in Xew Zealand and Celcbcs, low, 
with small sori, the rachis winged only near the summit. H. productum Kze. 
Bot. Zeit. (1848) 305, Van den Bosch Hymen. Jav. Tab. .'/5, of Java, is a larger 
plant with kiangular elongated valves and winged stipes. 



156 CHUIST. 

10. Hymenophyllum formosum IJrackenr. U. S. Explor. lOxpcd. 16 (1854) 
268. t. 32. f. n. 

MiNDANAO, Moiint Apo (1442 Copcland) Octobcr, l!t04, alt. 1,800 ni.; (.340 
IhVore tP Uoovcr) May, 1903. Onr ])lants match tlie forni reprcscnted by Tah. //7 
Van dcn Hosch, llynicnopliylhiccac Javanicae. 

11. Hymenophyllum Junghuhnii Van dcn IJosch Hynien. .Jav. 00. Tah. 'lil. 
LuzoN, District of Lepanto, Bagnen (1921 Gopeland) November, 190,5, alt. 

1,050 m. MiNDANAO, Province of Misamis, Mount Malindang (4638 Mcarns d 
Hutchinson) May, 1906. 

A form with very large sori and with broad segments. 

The Philippine plants refcrred by various authors to H. dilatatuin 8w., are 
referable to the two above species. 

12. Hymenophyllum australe Willd. Sp. Pl. 5: 527. 

LuzoN, District of Lepanto, Mount Data (1873 Vopcland) October, 1905; 
Province of Benguet, Mount Tonglon (Lolier) ; (5053 Curran) August, 1906. 
MiNDANAO, Mount Apo (324 DeVore c(- Hoover) May, 1903. 

The Pliilippine form has very narrow segments and is very compound, quadri- 
pinnatifid. Under the lens the margins are very finely denticulate. 

TRICHOMANES Linn. 

13. Trichomanes parvulum Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 8: 46. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (177 Whitford) May, 1904. 

14. Trichomanes diffusum Bhunc, Enuin. 225. , 
LuzoN, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling (5137 Merrill) March, 1906, 

300 m. alt. Mindanao, Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1652 Copeland) 
April, 1905, 700 m. alt. 

15. Trichomanes nitidulum Van den Bosch Hymen. Jav. 21. 
LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (6023 Elmer) March, 1904. 

16. Trichomanes rhomboideum J. Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3: 417; Van den 
Bosch Hymen. Jav. Tah. 2//. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (3121 Merrill) October, 1903; 
(206 Copeland) January, 1904. 

This form, of the Cephalomancs group whicli is richly developed in the Philip- 
pines, is distinguishable by its rotuidcd piniiBe, its elongated aristate teeth and 
long sori. 

17. Trichomanes Javanicum Blume, Enum. 224; Van den Bosch Hymen. Jav. 
Tah. 22. 

LUZON, Province of Rizal, Mabacal (Lohcr) March, 1906; Province of Lagima, 
Mount Maquiling (Loher) January, 1906; Province of Bataan, Moimt Mariveles 
(263, 513 Whitford) July, 1904; (2397 Bordcn) January, 1905; (2420 Meyer) 
January, 1905; (207 Copcland) February, 1904. Negros, Gimagaan River (1603 
Whitfurd) March, 1906. Palawan (578 Foxworthy) April, 1906. 
Conunon and widely distributed in the Philippines. 

Var. intercalatum n. var. 

Soris margini anteriori, apici saepcqiie parti suiieriori marginis pos- 

terioris impositis numerosis (12) longe exsertis campanulato-clavatis ore 

non (lilatato, dentibus marginis posterioris elongatis aristatis conspicuis. 

Pinnis saepe dissectis. 

LuzoN, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Lohcr) January, 1906; Provinee 
of Rizal, Oriud (Lohcr) February, 1906; Province of Benguet, Sablan (6214 
Ebner) April, 1904. 



SPICILIGIUM FILICUM rHILIPriNRNSIUM. 157 

POLYSTICHUM Rotli. 

Polysiichum. of the essentially Chinese gioup of P. auriculatum, is well lepre- 
sented in the Philippines. Tlie first form known was 1'hegopteris nervosa F§e, 
IMeni. 6. 13. Tab. 2. Fig. ^, wliich I do not hesitate to rediice as a variety of 
Puli/stichum deliodon. The rich Cliinese niaterial that I have at niy disposition 
has convinced nie that there are but sliglitly niarked ditterences by wliicli thc 
Pliilippine plant can be distinguished. 

18. Polystichum deltodon (Bak.) Diels in Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1' (1899) 
191. Aspidium deltodon Baker in Gard. Chron. 14: 494. 

Var. nervosum (Fee Gen. 244; Mem. 6: 13. Tab. 2. Fig. /f, Phegopteris) . 

Differt a tvpo montis Omi, Cliinae occid., leg. Faher 1045 statura 
majori, pinnis magis nnmerosis (iisque ad 50 utrinque) minus acutis. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, IMount Mariveles (Lohcr) November, 1894^ alt. 
1,400 m.; Province of Benguet, Baguio (591G Elmer) March, 1904. 

19. Polystichum Copeiandi n. sp. 

Eliizomate caespitoso foliis fasciculatis, stipite tenui 2.5 cm. longo 
cum rhachi squamis subulatis nigris parce vestito, viridi, fronde lanceolato- 
lineari, basi non attenuata, acuminata, usque ad 20 em. longa, 2 cm. lata, 
pinnata pinnis densissime imbricatis inferioribus deflexis ca. 50 utrinque 
rhombeo-acutiusculis marginibus parallelis 1 cm. longis basi fere 0.5 cm. 
latis, postice cuneatis, antice truncatis acute auriculatis, postice integris 
antice minute dentatis dentibus ca. 10 haud aristatis, nervis furcatis, 
soris postice deficieutibus antice ca. 6, 1 mm. a margine remotis minutis 
uniseriatis rufis impressis, indusio minuto fugaci rotimdo umbonato. 
Textura herbacea, faciebus calvis, colore flavoviridi, opaco. 

LuzoN, District of Bontoc, Sagada (1901 Copeland) November, 1905, alt. 
1,600 m. 

Very near the small group of P. hccatopteron Diels, and strongly resembling 
P. Dielsii Christ in Bull. Acad. Mans. (1900) 238, from whieh it differs in its 
smaller size, its short stipe, the pinnje not obtuse but pointed, the teeth more 
pronounced and the sori less marginal. 

20. Polystichum obliquum (Don) Moore Ind. (1858) 87. Aspidium ohli- 
quum Don Prodr. 3. A. caespitosum Wall. Cat. No. 3G7. 

Var. Luzonicum n. var. 

Stipite debili IT cm. longo, fronde 25 cm. longa 5.5 cm. lata, pinnis 
imbricatis oblongo-rliomboideis 3 cm. longis basi 12 mm. latis acutis 
acute auriculatis, margine fere integro sed dentilms parvis dejicientibus 
aristatis ciliato, soris biseriatis sed antice pluribus (ca. 10) medialibus 
minutis. Xervis occultis, textura herbacea, opaca. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Trinidad (1812 Copeland) October, 1905, alt. 
1,200 m. 

Very close to the plant from Cliina, India, Annam (leg. Cadiere) and of Japan, 
but larger, the teeth very faint, scarcely visible bnt nevertheless aristate. 



158 ciiiusT. 

ASPIDIUM Swartz. 

21. Aspidium (Pleocnemia) Angilogense Clirist. in P.ull. Tlprb. Boiss. II. 
6 (100(1) 1003. 

I do not lieaitate to refer liore Pleocnemia Cumingiana Preal, Epiin. Bot. 410, 
iiud regiet tliat tliis specific name wliicli has priority, is inappropriate in Aspidium 
beciuise of the later use of tbe sanie specific nanie under Af^}ii(Uum l)y sevcral 
autliors, Kunzc, Hlurm. In addition to tbe localities in Luzon cited l)y me in 
tbe ori<2final description of tbe species, Dr. Copeland bas found it in Mindanao, 
San Ramon, April, 190.5, No. 1098, alt. 000 m. He adds "Fronds 2 to 3 m. biKb, 
doltoid, stipe 2 m. bifib, stout, rbizome 10 to 20 cni. tbick, ascendinfj. I'rcsl, 
witliout doubt after Giming's notes says "arbor viginti-pedalis." In other 
characters I find our species to be ver_y near Nephrodium chrysotrichum Baker 
from Samoa; Upolu, Apia leg. lietche 1880; Falwao leg. Reinccke 90, 04; Savai, 
lcg. RrinecJcc OOb; Upolu, leg. Reinccke 04. The two collectors give tbe beight 
of tlie Samoan plant as from 20 to 40 feet, with black trunks. It is certainly 
tbe largest arborescent fern outside of tbe Cyatheaceae. 

22. Aspidium profereoides n. sp. 

Fronde sterili longissime stipitata, stipito 45 cm. longa pennae cygni 
crassitic ciim rhachi castaneo sulcato opaca sqnamis snbulatis 0.5 cm. 
longis setisque brunneis sparso vestito, fronde ultra 50 cm. longa 32 cm. lata 
deltoideo-oblonga pinnata parce bipinnatifida, pinnis infimis nec abbre- 
viatis nec postice auctis caeteris aequalibus, pinnis remotis recte patentibus 
ca. 15 utrinque infra apicem acuminatum inciso-lobatum, sessilibus, 18 cm. 
longis 3.5 cm. hitis lanceolatis acutis usque ad mediam laminam incisis, 
ala utrinque 0.5 cm. lata et ultra, lobis angulo angusto obtuso separatis 
12 mm. longis 1 cm. latis ovato-obtusis, ca. 18 utrinque, infimis aliquantum 
aiictis et rhachin tegentibus, suluntegris, nervis non prominentibus, in 
lobis pinnatis, 6 ad 8 utrinque, infimis areolam angulosam angustam secus 
costam, superioribus 1, 2 aut 3 areolas laterales secus CQstuhim formantibus, 
ab areola costali ad sinum 3 aut 4 areolis intercalatis. Nervulis inchisis 
nuUis. Textura flaccide herbacea, colore obscure viridi, opaco, faciebus 
imprimis costis furfuraceo-puberulis. Folio fertili sterili longiore; stipite 
70 cm. et ultra, fronde 50 cm. longa, egregie contracta, pinnis valde 
remotis, 10 cm. longis, 2.5 cm. latis, ad alam angustam incisis, lobis 
lineari-lanceolatis falcatis 4 mm. latis, soris 1.5 mm. latis rotundis 
mediis brunneis, indusio flaccido atrobrunneo mox corrugato sine dubio 
roniformi. 

Aspidium excellens Blume Enum. 120 differt ex descriptione Presliana 1. c. 
frondibus monomorphis, segmentis acutis. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Todaya (1467A Copeland) October, 1904, alt. 
1,205 m. "Rootstoek sbort, erect" Copeland. 

A marked species witb nerves of Proferea Presl, Epim. 010, and pronounced 
dimorphism. 



SPICILIGIUM FILICUM PHILIPPIISRNSIUM. 159 

» LEPTOCHILUS Kaulfuss. 

23. Leptochilus heterociitus (Presl) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) II, 385. 
Acrostichum fkigcUiferum Wall. 

This speeies, widely distributed from British India, tliroughout Malaya, and 
in the Pliilippines especially, offers in the latter region a variability that ap- 
proaehes that of Dryoptcris cancsceus. The apices of the sterile leaves are elon- 
^ated into linear lash-like appendages which are proliferous and usually take root, 
the young pLants emitting a fascicle of leaves entirely different from those of 
tlie adult ones. Often thej' are not simple linear leaves. with the hiteral lobes 
more or less aborted, but frequently are singuhvrly compound, enhTrged and deeply 
incised. Often the little phmts are fertile, and the fertile fronds offer irregular- 
ities analagous to the sterile ones. In other characters the differences are 
frequently strongly marked, and the various forms might readily be considered 
to represent distinct species. I luive enumerated below the forms, that in my 
conception of this species, shoiild be considered as varieties or subspecies, and 
although several of tl)em have acquired a certain stability, certain characters are 
constant in all of them, showing their elose relationship to L. heteroclitus and 
probable derivation from that species. 

Var. eurybasis n. var. 

Ehizomate repente, pennae anserinae crassitie, cum stipite basi sqnamis 
minutis dilute brunneis crispis sparso radicoso. Foliis sparsis sed appro- 
pinquatis, foliorum sterilium stipite 8 cm. longo flexuoso tenui griseo, 
fronde 13 cm. longo deltoideo-ovata, pinna terminali decurrente et cum 
pinna laterali proxima parva plus minus concreta, basi cuneata, acumi- 
nata, nec caudata nec prolifera, 8 cm. longa, 2.5 cm. lata oblonga par- 
viloba, lobis 10 vel pluribus utrinque subrotundis 3 mm. latis acute 
denticulatis, pinnis latcralibus 3 aut 4 utrinque, mediis 3 cm. longis, 1 
cm. latis cuneatis obtusis decurrentibus serrato-lobulatis, infimis valde 
postice auctis deltoideo-ovatis petiolatis nec decurrentibus, basi profunde 
incisis, caeterum serrato-lobatis. Nervis lateraliljus rectis a costa ad 
marginem protensis 4 mm. distantibus, series plures areolarum valde 
irregulariarum, minores areolas nec nervulos liberos includentium con- 
tinentibus. Colore atrato, textura herbacea, opaca. Foliorum fertilium 
lamina aequilonga sed angustiore, pinna terminali 5 cm. longa lanceolata 
acuta profunde lobata decurrente, pinnis lateralibus 4 utrinque obtusis, 
2.5 cm. longis, 1.5 cm. latis, ovatis sessilibus aut adnatis, sed pinnis infiinis 
petiolatis auctis, parte terminali late cuneato-ovata lobata, pinnulis hite- 
ralibus similibus minoribus. 

JMixDANAO, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley (552 Mrs. Clemens) May, 1906, alt. 
Cf.O m. 

Differing from the type by its aberrent fronds being in part bipinnate, deltoid 
at the enlarged base, posteriorly deeply infised; even the fertile fronds are some- 
times bipinnate at the base. 



100 ciTinsT. 

Var. Foxworthyi ii. var. 

Pinna terminali lincai'! vd ohJonga aciiniinata grosse (lentata longe 
(lecnrrente interdnni radicante, pinnis dnahns lateralibus rudinientariis 
niinutis, O.T) ciii. aut ultra dianietro, ellipticis aut rotundatis, pinna fertili 
tcrniinali lineari-lanceolata duohus lol)ulis hitcralihus ovatis suffulta. 
Planta vix 30 cm. alta. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, liosoboso (68 Foxworthy) January, lOOf». 
Small, very narrow and very siniple in coniparison with tlie type, ))nt elosely 
related by tlie shoots developed along tlie upper parts of tlie k'aves. 

Var. inconstans (Copel. in Govt. Lab. Publ. 28 (1905) 43 pro specie). 

In view of tlie fact tliat two varieties sliow a progressive intergradation 
between the type and the species described by Vopeland, I liave not hesitated to 
consider the latter as a variety of Leptochilus heteroclitus, a form still niore 
reduced than the preceding, cliaracterized by its very small size, the apices of the 
leaves often linear, the shoots vcry irreguLar. Var. Foxworthyi is almost exactly 
interniediate between the type and tlie variety inconstans. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Lamao River (3128 Merrill). April, 1904; (251 
Copeland) January, 1904; (1124 Whiiford) March, 1905; Province of Rizal, 
Mabacal (Loher) March, 190G. 

This variety seems to be rather widely distributed in the Pliilippines; I have 
specimens from Christmas Island (Straits Settlements) leg. Ridley that closely 
approach it. 

Var. Linnaeanus (Fee Acrost. 87 pro specie). 

1 believe that this form can be reduced, with a sufficient degree of surety, as 
a variety of Leptochilus hcteroelitus, as a derived form of that species, in spite 
of its uniformly elongated and very narrow leaves. Its texture, its nerves, 
although strongly siniplified, its proliferous leaves and the strong resemblance 
of its offshoots to those of tlie normal form support this contention. We have 
tlien a series almost complete from the type, that seems to be always triphyllous 
in the Philippines, to the form with absolutely linear and undivided leaves. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Manap River, near Montalban (Loher) 1892. 

24. Leptochilus diversifolius Blvmie, Enuni. 103 et Fil. Jav. Tab. 12. 
MiNDANAO, San Ramon (1543 Copeland) November, 1904, alt. 100 m. 
Discovered by Blume in Java and generally confounded witli L. heteroclitus, 

from wliich it is sufficiently distinct. Conf. Raciborski Pterid. Buitenz. 48. 

ATHYRIUM Rotli. 

25. Athyrium anisopteron Christ, Ann. Acad. Mans. (1907). 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Mount Tonglon (Loher) 1894, alt. 2,250 m.; 
Pauai (19G7 Copeland) November, 1905, alt. 2,150 m. 

Tliis is the plant that I have previously considered as Aspidium Fauriei var. 
clalum Christ,'* and which Copeland, MSS., referred to Nephrodium. Makino^ 
treats it with reason under Athyrium. After an examination of abundant material 
I liavo divided this species into several, tlie representative in the Philippines 
being A. anisopicron, a species of a Chinese group already known from Yunnan, 
leg. Hcnry et J'. Ducloux. 

'■Jiull. Hcrb. Boiss. 6 (IS9S) 193. 
"Bot. Mag. Tokyo 17: IGO. 



SPICILIGIUM FILICUM PHILIPPINRNSIUM. 161 

2G. Athyrium nanum n. sp. 

Ehizomate obliquo brevi aut subrepente, foliis subfasciculatis paucis 
(3 ad 4) stipite tenui fusco squamulis tenuissimis setulosis rufobruuneis 
patentibus eum rhachi pubescente fere 0.5 ad 1 cm. longo, fronde lan- 
ceolata 6 cm. longa, 7 mra. lata in longam apicem pinnatifidum prolon- 
gata, fere usque ad basin alata et utrinque 5 aut 6 pinnis remotiusculis 
praedita, pinnis segmentisque erecto-patentibus, 2.5 ad 5 mm. altis supe- 
rioribus basi aequalibus integris oblongis inferioribus inaequalibus antice 
auricuhatis subcrenatis infimis inaequalibus crenato-lobatis, puberulis, ner- 
vis furcatis vix pinnatis, soris ca. 5 pro segmento, vix 1 mm. longis, 
ovatis, ochraceis, indusio hmceohito rarius aspidioideo reniformi. Colore 
laete virente, textura flaccide herbacea. 

MiNDAXAO, Lake Lanao, Canip Keithley (656 Mrs. Clemeiis) July, 1906. 
The sniallest species of the genus known, pinnatifid and in part only simply 
pinnate, distinguished by its rather strongly winged rachis. 

27. Athyrium drepanopteron (Kze.) Moore. Asplenium oxyjyhyllum (Wall.) 
Hook. Polypodium drepanopteron Kze. Linnaea 23: 278, 318. Lastrea eburnea 
J. Sm. Bot. Mag. 72 (18-46) Comp. 34. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (6498 Elmer) June, 1904; found also by 
other American collectors. 

A continental type extending from Japan to Yunnan and north India. 

28. Athyrium Benguetense n. sp. 

Ehizomate ut videtur repente aut obliquo tenui nigro, stipitibus ap- 
proximatis paucis tenuibus stramineis 25 cm. et ultra longis, basi 
squamulis lanceolatis brunneis 2 mm. longis sparsis vestitis, rhachi et eosta 
puberulis, planta aliter nuda, fronde caudato-acuminata lanceolata 30 
cm. longa 9 cm. lata basi non attenuata bipinnatifida, pinnis patentibus 
sessilibus (costa straminea) remotis, infimis subdeflexis, ca. 25 infra 
apicem lobatum, 5 cm. longis 16 mm. latis lanceolato-acuminatis fere ad 
rhachin incisis, segmentis subpectinatis ca. 18 utrinque 2.5 mm. latis, 
lineari-oblongis obtusiusculis subcrenatis aut integris, nervis 6 ad 8 
utrinque simplicibus obliquis, soris mediis 6 ad 8 utrinque, rotundis 
vix 1 mm. latis ochraceis, indusio tenuissimo rotundo reniformi hyalino 
umbone obscure, mox evanido. Textura flaccida, colore atroviridi. 

Luzox, District of Lepanto, Mount Data (Lohcr) February, 1894, 2,250 m. alt. ; 
Province of Benguet, Pauai (1948 Copeland) Xovember, 1905, alt. 2,150 m. 

By its aspidioid sori a Bryopteris, but in all other respects a true Athyrium, 
very delicate and witli segments almost entire. 

29. Athyrium Copelandi n. sp. 

Ehizomate ramoso breviter repente crassiusculo atrato, stipitibus 
plumbeo-stramineis basi squamis lanceolato-subulatis Ijrunneis parce ves- 
titis, supra cum rhachi furfuraceo-squamulosis, 9 cm. longis, fronde 14 
cm. longa, G cm. lata oblonga, basi non attonuata longe acuminata, pinnis 



1G2 CIIRIST. 

ca. 15 uiriiunH', (rliaelii vcrsus apicom alata) sessilihus supcrioribns adna- 
tis et deeurrontibus, faleatis, inferioribus remotis, grosse lobatis 3 cm. 
longis 1 cni. latis lobis ea. (! utrinque infimis antieo maximis, 4 cm. longis, 
3 cm. latis, triangulari-ovatis, acutiusculis subcrenatis, nervis in lobis 
pinnatis 3 ad 4 utrinque, oblicpiis, soris 2 ad 3 mm. longis 1 mm. latis, 
turgidis ovato-lanceolatis, omnino tectis, indusio leviter curvato, griseo, 
membranaceo, persistente, soris rufo-ochraceis. Textura coriacea, colore 
atrovirente subtus pallido, faeiebus glal)ris. 

. LuzoN, District of Lepanto, Mount Data (inon Copeland) November, 1905, 
alt. 1,700 m. 

A small alpine species intermediate between Aihyrium acrostichoides (Sw.) 
Diels and Diplazium Japonicum (Tliunb.). 

DIPLAZIUM Swartz. 

30. Diplazium bulbiferum Brack. U. S. Expl. Exp. 16 (1854) 141. Tah. 18. 
f.l. 

Rhizomate pollicis crassitie, oblique erecto, radicibus nudis crassis et 
longis semi-suj)raterraneis suffulto, foliis fasciculatis sed paucis, stipitibus 
basi atratis squamisque subulatis nigris 0.5 cm. longis vestitis, superne 
raris setis nigris sparsis, 15 ad 25 cm. longis, tenuibus, fronde 20 ad 30 cm. 
longa, 13 cm. lata, ovato-oblonga apice pinnatifida-acuminata pinnata, 
ad basin apicis rhaclii gemmifera et interdum vivipara, pinnis infimis 
aliquantum abbreviatis et deflexis, pinnis fere omnibus versus apicem 
usque egregie petiolatis, petiolo 3 ad 5 mm. longo, horizontali, pinnis 8 
ad 10 utrinque infra apicem pinnatifidum, oblongis acutis nec eaudatis 
ca. 4 cm. rarius magis longis 18 mm. latis basi inaequalibus postice cuneatis 
antice auriculato-truncatis grosse crenato-serratis lobulis brevibus raro 
ultra 3 mm. longis 3 ad 5 mm. latis decumbentibus, acutiusculis, nervis 
utrinque in lobulis pinnatis plerumque 2 aut 3 utroque costulae latere 
obliquis, soro plerumque duplici (diplazioideo) protenso 7 mm. longo 
brunneo anguste lineari nervulo anteriore imposito, soris irregularibus 
brevibus aliis nervulis insidentibus, indusio tenuissimo diaphano decolori. 
Textura herbacea, planta laevi, colore supra atroviridi, sid)tus pallido, 
opaco. 

MiNDANAO, Davao (701 CopeUmd) March, 1904: San Ramon (1078 Copehmd) 
Marcli, 1905; Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley (167, 252 Mrs. Clcmens) February, 
190(5. LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (0010 Leiberg) July, 1904; 
(234 Whilford) May, 1904; (238 Copcland) January, 1904. 

A species of the D. silvatieum. group, but smaller, proliferous, its pinnse distant, 
generally shoit, shortly pointed and long petioled, unequally auriculate, slightly 
lobed, one long sorus and some short ones on each lobe, very pale beneath. The 
specinien from San Ramon is very large with 16 pairs of pinn« 12 by 2 cni., 
and more deeply lobed than the otliers. 

I think that the plant that I took for Z). silvaticum Presl in my first paper 
on Lohrr's Philippine ferns,' and of whieh 1 have not a specimen at hand, is 

'BuII. Herb. Boiss. 6: 153. 



SnCILTCIITM PILICUM PHILIPPINRNSIUM. 163 

perhaps referable to tlie above species wliicli seems to be widely distributed in 
tlie Philippines. D. jwUolare Presl, Epim. 446, a species that I liave not seen, 
differs, according to the description, in its linear pinnae and pubescent rachis. 
Diphizium silrolieum is to me more and more a "collective species" worthy of 
being segregated into several distinct forms. 

.31. Diplazium atratum n. sp. 

Stii^ite 25 cm. et ultra longo basi incrassito digiti diametro sulcato, 
ebeneo aut atroviolaceo, opaco uti tota planta, basi latere ventrali more 
cyathearum squamis subulatis 1.5 cm. longis nigris dense vestito, planta 
aliter subnuda aut minute furfuracea, fronde late deltoidea acuta 60 cm. 
et ultra longa basi 45 cm. et ultra lata, bipinnata, pinnis remotis petiolo 
2 ad 3 cm. longo praeditis Miperioribus subsessilibus, recte patentibus, 
utrinquo ca. 20, infimis haud reductis, usque ad 30 cm. longis, 10 cm. 
latis, longe acuminatis, basi attenuatis pinnulis ca. 20 infra apicem 
incisum ultra 1 cm. distantibus, recte patentibus inferioribus petioluLatis 
e basi lata lanceolato-acuminatis, ultra mediam laminam basique fere 
ad costam incisis, lobis ca. 15 utrinque porrectis 3 mm. longis trigono- 
falcatis acutis margine serrulato saepe reflexo pinnis superioribus pinnulis 
similibus, nervis -t ad 7 utrincjue obliquis crassis simplicibus, soris nervosa 
costa fere ad marginem segmentibus valde obliquis convexis atrobrunneis, 
linearilnis simplicibus, indusio lineari coriaceo brunneo persistente. 
Fronde glabra, textura rigide, fere lignoso-coriacea, colore atrofusco, 
opaco. 

Palawan, Victoria Peak (714, 08.3, 003 Foooioorthy) March, IflOG, alt. 000 to 
1,100 m. 

The plant witli its liard woodj' texture and its dark color must be in sharp 
contrast to the surrounding vegetation. It is a very stiff coriaceous species 
with ample, deltoid, bipinnate fronds, the pinnae petioled, the pinnules narrow 
and deeply incised, the lobes angular, narrow, their margins reflexed, the stipe 
and axial parts black, the frond itself blackish. The species has the general 
appearance of a Dicksonia or a Cyafhea. 

32. Diplazium crenatoserratum (Blume Eniun. 177, Asplenium) . 

MiNDANAO, 8an Ramon (1007 Copeland) March, 190.'), alt. 0,50 m. 

This species lias not previously been reported from the Philippines; the above 
specimen matches material in my herbarium from 8ingapore leg. Ilose, Java 
leg. Lefehre, Borneo leg. Graboicsky, Hose, Nietoenhuis, Celebes leg. Harasin and 
Sumatra leg. Schneider. 

33. Diplazium Smithianum (Baker) Diels Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1* (1889) 
228. AspIcDium i^Diithianum Baker 8yn. 245. 

I am unable to distinguisli froni this speeies No. 2007 Merrill from Bosoboso, 
Rizal Province, Luzon, determined by Copeland as D. dolichosorum Copel. The 
type of Copelaoid^s species is from Mindanao and he does not mention the Luzon 
plant in his diagnosis. Loher has previously found D. Smithianum in LuzoN, 
and I have specimcns from Celebes, leg. «Voro.sui, Koordcrs and Warburg (No. 
15314) and from New Guinea, Sattelberg, Weinland. 1890. It is also found in 
Ceylon. 



164 CIIRIST. 

ASPLENIUM l.iiin. 

84. Asplenium exiguum Bcdd. Ffins. S. Jnd. t. 1^/0. 

LiizoN, J'r()viiu't' of Benguet, Adouay (1845 Coycland) October, 1905, alt. 
900 m.; iiaf-iiio (4887, 48G0 0«rr««) Augu.st, 190(1. 

An Asiatie type. 

I have s])eeiniena froin Sinila leg. lilanford, Massuri leg. Hopr, Jlliotan ieg. 
(Iii//itli No. 2812, Yunnan leg. DeUtvay and froni Tlie Nilgiris, soiitlierii liidia, 
leg. Oamhle. It has not been found iii Japan. 

35. Asplenium Elmeri n. sp. 

Khizoinate brevi radicoso, squamis castaneis subulatis coronato stipi- 
tibus fasciculatis 7 ad 13 cm. iongis cum rhachi atrorufis subintentibus, 
squamulis patentibus subulatis brunneis vestitis, rhachi in parte superiore 
sed infra apicem prolifera, fronde oblonga acuminata basi attenuata 20 
cm. longa (i ad 8 cm. hita, bipinnata sivo tripinnatifida, pinnis petiolatis, 
IG ad 20 utrinque recte patentibus remotiusculis breviter petiolatis, 
costa libera supra breviter alata, pinnis ovato-elongatis acuminatis apice 
grosse dentato lanceolato, pinnis 3 ad 3 cm. longis, 1.5 cm. hitis remotis 
paucis 2 rarius 3 utrinque, petiolulatis ovato-cuneatis obtusis grosse 
dentatis 8 mm. longis 3 mm. latis, pinnula basali anteriore aucta et rhachi 
approximata, nervis in segmentis flabeHato-furcatis, soris 2 aut 3 in 
segmento, lanceolatis 1 mm. latis atrobrunneis indusio griseo angusto 
persistente. Colore opaco atroviridi, textura herbacea. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Mount Santo Tomas (6538 Eimer) June, 1904: 
District of Lepanto, Mount Data (J858 Copeland) October, 1905. 

Loher has found the saine species previously on Mount Mariveles, Province of 
Bataan, Luzon, Septeinber, 1893, but his speciinens are larger, 55 cin. tall. 
Very nearly the same species is found in Celebes (1322 8arasin) November, 
J895, but in 8arasin's plant the segments are longer and the rachis is also 
proliferous. A small species resembling Asplenium cuneatum Lam., and A. 
pruemorsum S\v., which are frequently found in herbaria under the name A. 
laserpitiifolium, and sometimes under the naine A. contiguum. A good species 
characterized by its stipe and rachis being covered with scales. 

I no longer niaintain as a Philippine species Asplenimn nitidum, that I previ- 
ously credited to LuzoN.** I have not seen froni tlie Archipelago tlie large pJant 
witli long pinnules which are aurided and deeply incised such as is represented 
in Malacca, by specimens leg. Ridley and in Borneo, leg. Nietcenhuis, etc. 

36. Asplenium praemorsum Sw. Prodr. 130. 

LuzoN, Provinee of Benguet, Pauai (Copeland) November, J905, alt. 2,200 m. 
A small form with narrowly cuneiform segments previously found in Luzon 
by Loher. 

37. Asplenium truncatilobum (Presl) Tarachia trunctailoha Presl Epim. 
(1849) 437. Asplenium arayatense (^Xwist Mss. 

LuzoN, Province of Pampanga, Mount Arayat (38J6, 3909 Merrill) May, 
October, 1904: 1'rovince of Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Loher) 1906: Province 
of Zambales, Mount Pinatubo (Loher) l<\^bruary, 1906: J^rovince of Benguet. 
Adouay (J857c CopeJand) October, J905. 

"" liull. Ifrrh. 7?rn.s.s. (1898), 6, l.')^. 



SPICILIGIUM FILICUM rHILirriNENSIUM. 165 

The speciniens liave been referred by the collectors with doiibt, sonietimcs 
to Asplcnimn hirtum Kaiilf., sometimes to A. caudatum Forst. They have more 
the appearance of .4. horridum Kaulf., biit differ from the hatter in being smaller, 
with shorter pinnae, the lobes less numeroiis, truncate at tlie apices, and the 
stipe particularly villous. 1 believe that the specimens cited above are identical 
witli tlie species clearly described by Presl. 

38. Asplenium horridum Kaulf. Enum. 173. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Mount Apo (319 DeVore et Eoover) 1903. 
Very typical and agreeing with specimens from the Sunda Islands and 
Polynesia. 

39. Asplenium militare Copel. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) 8uppl. 254. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Mount Apo (321 DcVore ct Hoovcr) May, 1903; 
(1505 Copeland) , 1,800 m. alt., a specimen with more deeply lobed pinnse. 

A species remarkable for its resemblance to Asplaiium serra Langsd. et Fisch., 
of tropical America, very large with broad lanceolate pinna' whicli are lobed and 
finely denticulate, the sori sliort and close to the costa. 

40. Asplenium cuneatum Lam. Encycl. 2: 309. 

This group, difficult everywhere, is particularly polymorphous in the Philip- 
pines. A form that can be admitted to the Philippine flora, without doubt, is 
the following: 

Var. tripinnatum Fourn. Fil. Nov. Caledon. 307. 

Tripinnatifidiim, segmentis brevibns ovato-cimeatis. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Mount Apo (318 DeVore ct Hoovcr) May, 1903: 
Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1728 Copeland) April, 1904, alt. GOO m. 
LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Montalban (Loher) March, 1906. 

41. Asplenium laserpitiifolium Lam. Encycl. 2: 310. 

This species in tlie young state is perhaps sometimes confused with the 
preceding, but Fournier 1. c, indicates a good distinctive character. In A. 
euneatum tlie sori are narrow, flabellate and reach to the border of the pinnse, 
while in A. laserjntiifolium they are convex and are confined to the middle of the 
pinnse. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (6029 Ehiicr) : Province of Bataan, 
Mount Mariveles (176 Whilford) May, 1904. 

Var. subvenustum n. var. 

This is a rediiced form 30 to 45 cm. high with very much dividcd fronds and 
slender stipes, the pinnules 5 mm. long, sometimes longer, trianguliir, flabellate, 
the sori snurll, short, two or three on a pinnule, resembling Adiantum vcnustum 
Don. Tlie specimens are not young plants, but appear to be full grown and 
constant in tlie above characters. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Bosoboso (1097 Ranios) July, 1906; (80 Foxworthy) 
January, 1906: Province of Cavite, Mendez Nuiiez (1037 Mantjuhat) August, 1906. 

42. Asplenium affine Sw.; Schrad. Journ. 1800= (1801) 56. 

After comparison witli specimens from Bourbon and Africa, 1 admit to the 
Philippine flora as this species, a specimen with bi])innate fronds, the pinnules 
elongate-rhomboidal, 2 cm. long, unequal, irregularly dentate, slightly incised, 
the sori numerous, straight, narrow, elongated, and parallel. In texture this 
species is firmer than the preceding one. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Todaya ( 1502 Copeland) October,. 1904, alt. 
725 m. 



166 (5IIRIST. 

■i:i. Asplenium insititium Brack. U. S. Explor. lOxiiod. 1(>]. pl. :i:i. f. 2. 

LuzoN, rrovincc of Bc'nfi;uct, Baf^uio ((»012 lUmcr) Marcli, ]!»04. 

I have idcntified tliis ])lant after comparison with spccimcns from the Sand- 
wich Islands, lcf,'. llUkhnmd and Bnldmn, and from Ncw Calcdonia lcg. Franc. 
It is the form that Cvpelavd in his Polypodiaceaa; of the Philippincs, 84, supposes 
to be the variety Upinnatifidum of A. contiguum Kaulf., but it bdongs evidently 
in the section with A. cuneatum. 

STENOCHLAENA J. Sm. 

Thc spccies of this genus oftcn can not bc dctcrniincd with ccrtainty without 
utilizing the characters shown by the secondary leaves. Unfortunately these 
sccondary lcaves are as yct imperfectly known in many specics, for frequently 
when adult and sorifcrous lcaves arc found, thc secondary lcaves arc not to be 
found, and without the threc forms and without tlie ccrtainty of their liaving 
come from the same plant it is often difficult if not impossible to idcntify these 
forms of Stenochlacna with trimorphous leavcs. 

Undertvood''' separatcs thc species of Strnoclilacua of the Old World, wliicli 
have the veins springing directly from the midrib, into two groups: 1, Tcrat- 
ophylhim with trimorphous leaves and with spiny naked rhizomes, and 2, 
Lomariopsis with rhizomes covered with scales but spineless. Howevcr, our 
knowlcdge of the last group is not sufficiently completc to dctermine whether or 
not the secondary leaves are prcscnt or lacking, but 1 am of the opinion that 
they are present, at least in some species. 

From the Philippines I am able to rccord the follov^^ing species: 

44. Stenoclilaena aculeata (Blume) Kunze Bot. Zeit. 6: 142. Loinaria 
aculcata Blume Enum. PI. Jav. 205. 

LuzoN, Provincc of Rizal (Lohcr) March, lOOG; (2G9ri Ahcrn^s collcctor) conf. 
Vcrhandl. Schwcis. Nat. Forsch. Gcsellsch. (1006) Tah. 8; Provincc of Benguet 
(6264 Elmer) ; northern Luzon (Warburg). Mindanao, Mount Batangan 
( Warhurg ) . 

The secondary leavcs of tliis plant agree very avcII with those figured by Hookcr 
Sp. Fil. 1 : 56. B, for Davallia achillcuefolia Wall., \\hich is cited by Undericood 
as a synonym of *S'. aculcata. I do not hesitate to identify with this species the 
form described by Gopcland as Asplenium epiphyticum (Perk. Frag. FI. Philip. 
(1905) 184), and Dr. Copeland himsclf adniits in his Coniparative Ecology of 
San Ramon Polypodiacca^"' that this plant is "apparently idcntical with occasional 
immature forms of »S'. aculcata." This form constitutes simply, as I have denion- 
strated in Verhand. Schweis. Nat. Forsch. Ges. (190G) Tuh. 5, the nictamorphosis 
of the secondary leaves to thc adult ones, combined witli asplcnioid sori which 
ajipear on the metaniorphosed Icaves as a reminder of the origin of the genus, 
which is from the vicinity of Asplenium. I'have a specimen from Dr. Copclund 
which has beside scolopcndriform leavcs, a portion of the rhizonie with spines 
and with tripinnate leaves similar to those figured by Hooker for DuvuUia 
achiUeacfoJia. 

Copeland found his Asplenium cpiphyticum without the adult form of Steno- 
chlacna, which shows that the species of Stcnochlaena are not always normally 
develoiied, but remain sometimcs in a stunted condition. An analagous case is 
found in the Philippincs in Lcploohilus hctcroclitus. 

" Ihill. Torr. Bot. Cluh. 33 (190G) 35. 
'"This Journal, Bot. 2 (1907) 69. 



SPICILIGIUM FILICUM PHILIPPINBNSIUM. 167 

MiNDANAO, Surigao (260 Bolster) ; Davao (G99 Copeland) ; San Ramon (1572 
Copeland ) . 

The same plant witli simple leaves but with their bascs out into irrefirular 
pinnate seoments has been called by Bory, Scolopendrium Durvillei (Kunze 
Schkuhr Suppl. Tab. 5.). 

MiNDANAO, Mount Batangan (14111 Warburg) . 

45. Stenochlaena Williamsii Underw. in Bull. Torr. Bot. Club. 33 (1900) 41. 
LuzoN, Provinee of Bataan, Lamao River (368 Barnes), det. CopeJand. 

The specimens agree well with the description of the species. The secondary 
leaves, wliich I presume belong with the specimens cited, but without being able 
to determine tliis point witli certainty, differ from thosc of tlie prcceding species 
in their linear, more elongated segments and with a tendency of the frond to 
become gradually larger and to present auricles at the anterior base of the 
pinnules, a point of union with Asplenium of the cuneatum group, conf. Verhandl. 
Schweiz. Nat. Forsch. Gcscll. (1906) Tab. 6. The secondary leaves mentioned 
above are those of specimens from Mindanao (Wurbury) , Luzon (Warburg) and 
Nortli Celebes, Bojong (15321 Warbury) . 

46. Stenochlaena arthropteroides Christ in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 6 (1906) 
998. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Montalban (Lohcr) January, 1906, a vcry similar 
form, but slightly larger from the Laniao River, Province of Bataan (85 Barncs) . 

This species is distinguished by its very unequal and crenulate pinnae, one 
specimen with secondary leaves bearing also some adult leaves, which, although 
small, are strongly crenulate. The secondary leaves arc rather large, 10 cm. 
long, 4 cm. wide, nearly sessile, tripinnatifid, the rachis reddish, flexuous, the 
pinna; ovate, obtuse, 2 cm. long, 1 cm. wide; the pinnules serrate, cut into linear 
segments which are obtuse, often bi- or tri-furcate, 2 mni. long, 0.5 to 1 mm. 
wide, the color very dark green. 

47. Stenochlaena subtrifoliata Copel. in Philip. Journ. Sci. 1 (1906) Suppl. 
152. 

MiNDANAO, District of Zaniboanga, San Ramon ( 1749 Copeland) , alt. 750 m. 
Judging from the above authentic specimen tliis is a very distinct species, 
characterized by the cartilaginous borders of tlic adiilt pinnae. 

48. Stenochlaena palustris (Burm.) Bedd. Folypodium palusire Burni. Fl. 
Ind. (1768) 234. 

MiNDANAO, Davao (5Z2 Copeland) . 

The typical form, identical witli specimens in my herbarium from Java, Ceylon, 
Himalaya and Samoa. 

49. Stenochlaena sp. 

This is tlie phint described by ine in BuU. Hcrb. Boiss. II. 6 (1906) 997. and 
wliich approaches »S'. Milnei Underw. ex descr., but wliich it is impossible for me 
to identify specifically because fertile fronds are lacking. 

DAVALLIA Sm. 

50. Davallia decurrens Hook. Sp. Fil. 1 : 167. t. !.)'( B. 

This species, found by Cuming, is cited by Copeland in his Polypodiace» of 
tlie Philippines 54, without exact locality. It appears to bc rare. I have 
specimens from Montalban, Province of Rizal, Luzon, collccted by Loher in 
March, 1906, that agree exactly with Hoohcr's figvue, except that Lohcr's 
specimens are smaller, and have bi- to tri-pinnatifid fronds instead of tri- to 
quadri-pinnatifid ones. 



168 (iiiuisT. 

51. Davallia vestita liliniH! Kinmi. (1.S2S) 2:5.S. 

LuzoN, Province of Pani]«in<fa, Mouiit Arayat (.SS78 Merrill) May, 1004: 
Provineo of Tayabas, Mount Pana jao (Ijohcr) Kebruary, lOOC). Xkokoh, Mount 
Silay (1510 WliHford) May, li)0(i. 

This specios does not seem to ix- rarc in tlie Pliilij^pines. Tlie speciiiicns are 
less scaly tlian tliose of Java and Celebes. 

52. Davallia pusilla Mett. Ann. Sc. Nat. IV. 15 (1S()1) 7!). 
MlNnANAO, Province of Zamboan<fa, San Ramon ( 1()()5 CoprUind) 190"). 
CopcUmd^^ lias identified this nuniber as Ht<iiuila pdrvuUi -T. 8m., but my 

specimen agrees e.xactly vi^ith specimens of Davallia pusilUi from New Caledonia 
leg. Franc. 

MICROLEPIA Presl. 

53. Microlepia Sablanensis n. sp. 

Tripinnata, ampla, rhachi opaca fulvostraminea, brevissime et molliter 
puberula, pinnis 35 cm. et ultra longis, 9 cm. latis, elongato-caudatis, 
breviter petiolatis basi vix abbreviatis, pinnulis pectinato-confertis nume- 
rosis (40 et ultra utrinque) recte patentibus, fere sessilibus, acuminatis, 
basi inaequali, segmento infimo anteriore aucto, libero, ad rhachim ad- 
presso, ad rhachim incisis, segmentis ca. 20 utrinque confertis angulo 
angusto separatis oblongis, obtusis, 0.5 cm. longis, 2.5 mm. latis, inae- 
qualibus, postice subintegris cuneatis, antice truncatis, crenatis, lobulis 
plerumque 3 minutis, nervis manifestis, in lol)ulis bi- aut tri-furcatis, 
soris minutis, 2 aut 3 plerumque antice in sinubus lobulorum positis, 
globosis, indusio inconspicuo semicupuliformi tenuissimo. Textura her- 
bacea, costis nervisque subtus pilosis, facie superiore laevi, sed opaca, 
colore obscure viridi. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Sablan (6231 FAmer) April, 1904. 

Diflfering from Microlejna spcluncae (L.) Moore in its larger fronds, finer 
pubescence, the pinnules more numerous, the segments smaller, less unequal and 
the denticulations finer. 

DENNSTAEDTIA Bernh. 

54. Dennstaedtia Smithii (Hook.) Moore Index. 308. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (1133 Whiiford) March, 1904: 
Province of Rizal (91 Fooo-worthy) January, 1906. 

Tlie specimens cited above agree exactly with the figiire givcn by Hookcr,^- but a 
species very close to this, recently described by Copeland, seems to be more comnion 
and widely distributed. It is larger, more pubescent, and with the basal pinnule 
of the III order anteriorly very much augmented. It is: 

55. Dennstaedtia Williamsi Copel. in Phili]). .Tourn. Sci. T (1906) Suppl. 
148, of which 1 liad prepared the following diagnosis before learning that Copeland 
had already described tlie species. 

Amplissima, quadripinnatifida, stipite 2 m. alto, 2.5 cm. diametro, 
tereti, rufo-testaceo, dcnse cum rhachi pilis strigosis patentibus 2.5 mm. 
longis fulvis tomenloso postea glabrata, frondibus 2 m. altis, fasciculatis 

'^ This Journal ^ (1900) Suppl. 147. 
'- Sp. Fil. 1 : t.28 D. 



SPICILIGIIM FILICUM PHILIPPINENSIUM. 169 

(Copeland) pinnis petiolatis, 90 cni. longis, 30 cni. latis oblongis acumi- 
natis l)asi haiul attenuatis. Pinnulis ca. 35 utrincpie, iniimis remotis, 
reliquis approxinuitis, petiolulatis, infimis IG cni. longis, basi 6 cm. 
latis, acuminatis, oblongis, antice basi valde auctis, i. e., pinnula"! 5 
cm. longa lanceolata, rhachi adpressa et pinnuhirum'^ proximani at- 
tingente et superante, basi pinnuhie" posteriore cuneata, pinnulis^J^ 
vakle abbreviatis praedita. Pinnulis"! imbricato-confertis ca. 25 utrin^- 
que, lanceohito-obtusiusculis, basi inaequali antice aucta, bTevissime 
petiolatis, 2 cm. longis, 0.5 cm. latis, usque ad costulam alatani incisis. 
segmentis ultimis oblongis obtusis inaequalibus antice crenatis 0.5 cm. 
longis, 2.5 mm. latis, costis nervisque adpresse rufo-pubescentibus, nervis 
in segmentis pinnatis furcatis 'uanifestis, soris in sinu dentium positis, 
uno rarius pluribus pro segmento, marginalibus, 1 mm. diametro, globosus, 
brunneis, indusio superiore (marginali) manifesto deflexo, inferiore 
sporangiis conferto. Textura eoriacea rigida, colore griseo-virente, opaco. 

MixDANAO, Piovince of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1(532 Copcland) February, 
1905: District of Davao, Momit Batangan (14134 Warburg) : Lake Lanao, 
Camp Keithley (375 Mis. Clemens) Marcli, 1906. LuzoN, Province of Rizal, 
Mount Batay (Loher) April, 1905; Arambibi River (Loher) March. 

56. Dennstaedtia Hooveri n. sp. 

Amplissima, rhizomate repente, fronde 2 m. alta, subdeltoidea, quad- 
ripinnatifida, stipite 1.5 ad 2 m. (Copeland) rhachi digiti crassitie, cuni 
costis costulisque pubescentia brevi strigosa rufa tecta, pinnis CO cm. 
longis, 18 cm. latis breviter petiolatis basi vix attenuatis, acuminatis, 
pinnulis alternis approximatis petiolulatis, ca. 35 utrinque, e basi hita 
et antice aucta oblongis acutis. 9 cm. longis basi 3 cm. latis, costa haud 
alata, pinnulis^^^ ca. 18 utrinque, fere imbricato-confertis, ovato-obtusis 
inaequalibus, basi posteriori cuneatis, antice truncatoauctis 1 cm. longis, 
0.5 cm. latis usque ad rhachin incisis, segmentis^^ 3 aut 4 utrinque, 
cuneato-oblongis obtusis, 3 mm. longis 2.5 miu. latis crenato-lobatis, iis 
pinnarum sterilium elongatis dentibus acutiuscuHs, nervis in segmentis 
pinnatis et furcatis, faciebus utrinque pilosis, pilis albidis tortuosis, 
soris 1 mm. latis rotundatis, uno rarius phiribus pro segmento, in dente 
obtuso brevi basihiri posito, indusio tenuissimo mox evanido infero semi- 
cupuhformi membranaceo-griseo. Textura tenuiter herbacea, colore 
obscuro-viridi. 

MiXDANAO, District of Davao, Mount Apo (DcVorc cC- Hoover) May, 1903: 
Province of Zamboanga, 8an Ramon (Copeland) May, 1905, alt. 850 m. 

A species related to D. flnccida (Forst.) Bernh., of Sanioa, cliaracterized by 
its long and rather frequent villous hairs, the pinnules of tlie third order broad, 
irregularly parted and serrate-imbricate, and a rather pronounced dimorphism 
between the fertile and sterile fronds. Texture thin. Rachis and cost« covered 
with a reddish pubescence. It is distinguished from D. flaccida by its lobes ami 
pinnules being narrowcr and in its shorter pubescence, otherwise very simihir to 
tliat species. 

54744 2 



170 OIIUIST. 

HEMIGRAMMA iiov. <j;v\\. 

Foliis rosulatiy siinplicihiis aiit irrcgularitcr j)iiniatipartitis, (liniorj^liis, 
soriferis contractis, nervationc sagenioidea, i. e., pinnata, intcr nervos 
laterales miiltifarie areolata, ncrvulis liheris inchisis, soris lineatis ramosis 
nervos anastomosantes sequentiljus, ipsisquc irregulariter anastomosan- 
tibus et reticulatis. 

.'>7. Hemigramma Zollingeri (S. Kiiiz) Eemionitis Zollingeri 8. Kurz in 
Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 39:" 90. /. 5. 

I bclieve that sonie of tlie speciniens on wliich Dr. Copcland based his new 
species, Hcinionitis ()ymnopteroide<i^^ slioiild be referred to HemigranDna Zolling- 
cri. Copeland states that liis species can be distinguished from H. Zollingeri by 
tlie copious free veinlets in tlie sterile frond. Tn my specimens of the species 
from Batavia, Java, ex Herb. Hort. Bot. Bogor., and from Celebes, leg. Harnsin, the 
veinlets are also very numerous, even as Ktirz himself shows in the figure cited 
above; moreover tlie constantly contracted fertile fronds of Hemionitis gymnopter- 
oidea are not a peculiarity of that species, as in my specimens from Montalban, 
leg. Loher, they are 1 cm. wide and present the oblique lozenge-shaped soriferous 
bodies as do the specimens from Java. 

Var. major (Copel) Hemionitis gyinnopteroidea forma niajor Copel. I. c. 

Ehizomate crasso obhquo rudimentis stipitum tccto, fohis fasciculatis 
paucis (3 ad 4) stipitibus, basi incrassatis usque ad 16 cm. longis basi 
squamis subulato-setiformibus patentibus nigris usque ad 1 cm. longis 
dense barbato, caeterum parcius sparso, laniina sterih 20 ad 25 cm. 
longa saepe Imsi aequilata, interdum simphce ovato-acuminata medio 7 
cm. hita repanda aut obtuse lobata, saepius profunde pinnatifida aut 
basi pinnata^ valde irreguhTriter lobata, apice aucto et elongato usque 
ad 8 cm. lata, pinnis usque ad 3 utrinque, ovatis repandis acutis aut 
ohtusis, pinhis basalibus saepe postice cordatis, omnibus ala phis minus 
lata junctis, fronde saepe decurrente, lamina fertili valde contracta, 8 cm. 
longa, 4 cm. lata, 2 pinnis utrinque 5 cm. longis 3 mm. latis et apice 
irregulariter lobato, nervis lateralibus 12 ad 15 utrinque pro pinna, 
patentibus, rectiuscuhs, manifestis, fere ad marginem protensis, ca. 5 
areolas rectangulas includentibus, quae nervulorum reti nec non nervuhs 
crebris liberis furcatis repletae sunt, pinnis sorifcris irregularibus, spo- 
rangiorum nervulos sequentibus fulvis tectis. Tcxtura herbacea mem- 
branacea, fere diaphana, colore laete virente, opaca. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Lamao River (2124 Borden) December, 1904: 
Province of Rizal, Montalban {Loher) September, 1891. Mindanao, Province of 
Zamboanga, San Ramon (17S0 Copehvnd) May, 1905. 

It does not form a nearly sessile rosette like the species, but the leaves are 
fascicled and stipitate and the sterile fronds, like the fertile ones, are pinnatifid 
and even pinnate. The size is miich larger. 

This form imitates strangely Leptochilus latifolius (Meyen) {Gymnopteris 
taccaefolia J. Sm.) in the protean variation of the fronds and in its habit. 
Normally to rate the large plant as a variety would not be comprehensible, from 

"Perk. Frag. FI. Philip. (1905) 183. 



SriCILIGIUM FILICUM PHILllTINENSIUM. 171 

the study of diied plants alone. without the evidence given by Copeland, and the 
absolute identity of the venation, tissue and its general structure. It is a 
striking examjile of the strange and luxuriant fornis found in the Pliilippines. 

Lcptuchilus latifolius is distinguisliable froni our pUint by its firm texture, 
not diaphanous, its color, black wlien dry, its proliferous fronds and its areola; 
supplied with a network of very irregular nerves. 

DicVs procedure in phicing Heniiouitis ZoUingcri in ^ipigramnic is to nie an 
unnatural arrangnient. Tlie ancestry of the plant is ratlier in the Aspidieae, 
anahigous to Stenoseiuia, and accordingly tlie above new generic nanie is proposed 
for it. 

CONIOGRAMME Fee. 

58. Coniogramme fraxinea (Don.) Diels in Nat. Pflanzenfam. 1* (1899) 
2G2. DipUiziuni fraxincum Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (182.5) 12. 

Tliis genus is in need of revision and contains a plurality of forms which 
doubtless can be studied with better results in the fiekl than in tlie herbariura. 
In addition to tlie ordinary form with bi- to tri-pinate fronds whicli are membra- 
nous and serrate, Copclaiid '* indicates, without name, another one that usually 
has entire and simply pinnate fronds. Tliis latter form is very close to one found 
iu China that I liave described as the variety spinulosa '^ but the Pliilippine 
form is larger and with nearly entire margins, and I call it: 

Var. Copelandi n. var. 

MiNDANAO, Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon ( 174(5 Copeland) April, 1905. 
LuzoN. Province of Rizal, Mabacal (Lohcr) March, l!)0(i. The same plant, but 
denticulate, has been found in Benguet Province, Baguio (6032 Elmer) March, 
1904. 

LINDSAYA Dry. 

59. Lindsaya falcata Dry. Trans. Linn. Soc. 3 (1797) 41. t. 7. f. 2. 
Negros, Gimagaan River ((i() Copeland) January, 1904; (1568 Whitford) 

May, 1906. 

The above specimens agree exactly with material from tropical America. It 
is rather remarkable tliat this sjtccies, like Lindsaya lancea (Linn. ) Bedd., should 
be found in tropical America and again in the orient. 

PTERIS Linn. 

60. Pteris quadriaurita Retz. Obs. 6: 38. 

Stipite cuiii rhachi plenmique glabro, straniineo, segmentis oblongis, 
l)asi conjunctis, nervis liberis, subtus nianifestis, textura herbacea, colore 
laete virente. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal (111 Foxworthy) January, 1906; Mabacal (Loher) 
March, 1906: Province of Zambales, Mount Pinatubo (Loher) February, 1906: 
Province of Bataan, Lamao River (239, 240 CojKland) February, 1904: Province 
of Union, Bauang (5619 Elmer) February, 1904. 

The above specimens represent the typical form of this polymorphous species, 
beinjr membranous in texture, the nervcs manifest on tlie lower surface and not 
imited, the segments oblong united at the base, the stipe and rachis generally 
smooth. The numerous derived forms of this group which are found in the 
Philippines can be grouped as follows : 

"Govf. Lah. Puhl. 28 (1905) 67. 
^^Bull. Hoc. Bot. France (1905) 52,55. 



1 72 ciiiiisT. 

(11. Pteris biaurita Limi. Sj.. I'l. (ITr).?) 107«). 

LuzoN, ProviiK-o of liciiffnct, Mouni Ton^loti {fjolicr} ; l>ii<^niiis (180.1 Copeland) 
October, IDOf); Manila (Uslcri) Deceniber, 1!)()2. Palawan, (594 Foxworthi/) 
April, l!)0<i. 

A snbspccics rescnii.linti; tb(( typical forin, bnt tbc ncrves forining a costal 
arcola wliicb is sonietinies mirrow and dillicult to lind, sometinies ratber large 
and distinct. 

G2. Pteris Blumeana Agardb Pterid. 22. 

Stipitc rhaL-liique, saepe etiaiii costis, rui'ostraiiiiueis, castaneis aut 
atratis vcrrucis niinutis asperis, segnientis linearibus basi plus minus 
liberis, numerosis, pectinato-confertis, nervis liljeris subtus tenuibus minus 
manifestis, textura coriacea rigida, colore obscure viridi saepe glaucino. 

MiNDANAO, Lake Lanao, Caiiip Keitbley (255 Mrs. Clemms) February, lOOG: 
District of Davao, Mount Dagatpan {Warburg) ; Santa Cruz (254 DeVore ci 
Hoover) April, 1903: Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1596, 1599 Copeland) 
January, 1905. Luzon, Province of Bengiiet, Sablan (6213 Elmer) April, 1904. 

A subspecies witb coriaceous texture, linear segments sligbtly or not at all 
united at tbe base, free veins wliicb are very slender and scarcely visible above, 
its color dark and often somewbat glaucous, tbe stipe and racbis dark, rcddisb 
or blackish and somewhat verrucose. It is a Malayan form that I liave also 
from Java, Tjibodas, leg. Racihorski, 1897; Perak, leg. Ilklley No. 0543; Kliasia, 
leg. Austen, det. Glarke "Var. Khasiana," and Yabim, near Limbang, German New 
Guinea, leg. H. Zahn, 1905. I belicve it to be identical witb Pferis Blumeana 
Agardb, as described by Hooker "■' and by Racihorski.^' 

Var. asperula J. Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 405, et Hook. Sp. Fil. 
3: 181, t. 135 A; var. setigera Hook. i. c. 

Costis setulis albis 1.5 mni. bmgis superne regulariter ciliatis. 

Basilan (93 DeVore d Hoover) April, 1903. Mindanao, Province of Zani- 
boanga, San Ramon (1651 Copeland) Febniary, 1005. 

63. Pteris Whitfordi n. subsp. {P. Whitfordi Copel. in Pbilip. Journ. Sci. 
1 (1906) Suppl. 255, pro specie). 

A typo differt colore atroviridi, textura coriacea, segmentis angido 
acuto erecto-patentibus usque ad costam separatis, sinu ferc nullo, stipite 
valido, paleis brunneis 0.5 cm. longis- lanceolatis basi vestito, planta 
niagna 60 ad 70 cm. alta, nervis manifestis, 

Negbos, Gimagan River (1660 Whitford) . 

64. Pteris parviloba subsp.; Clirist in Bull. Sci. Fr. et Belg. 28 (1898) 
264. t. 12. 

Statura gracili, stipite tenui, rufostramineo, scaberulo, fronde late 
deltoideo, pinnis infimis auctis et valde deflexis, segmentis confcrtis 
lineari-oblongis, brevibus, basi plerumque liberis, nervis tenuibus subtus 

^»Sp. Fil. 3: 180. 

" Pterid. Buitcnzorg 156. 



SPICILIGIUM FILICIM rHILIPPINEXSIUM. 173 

manifestis, textura papyracea rigidiuscula, colore dilute ochraceo-viridi, 
soris et indusiis saepius angustissimis, facie superiore saepius setis rigidis 
scabra. 

Luzox, Province of Bataan, Lamao River (241 Copeland) February, 1004; 
Province of Benguet, Baguio (5810 Elmer) March, 1004 ; Ambuklao (1827 
Copcland) October, 1005: Province of Pampanga, Moimt Arayat (3814 Mcrrill) 
May, 1004: Province of Rizal, Montalban (Loher) October, 1800, November, 
100.5; Angilog (Loher) March, 1006. Palawan (741, 062 Foxtcorthy) March, 
April, 1006. 

A slender small form, the fronds rather short and broadly deltoid, the stipes 
rough, slender, tawny, the segments pectinate, free at the base, papyraceous, 
yellowish in color, the sori and indusia generally very slender. Tliis form is 
often found strongly reduced in size, resembling Pteris Grevilleann. I have the 
same form from Sikkim "Pteris aspericaulis Wall." leg. Dr. Jcrdon, and from 
Cao Bang, Tonkin, leg. Dr. Billci, 1006. 

Var. pluricaudata (Copel. in Pliilip. Journ. Sci. 1 (lOOG) Suppl. 156, pro 
specie ) . 

Fronde minuta 10 cm. longa et lata pedata pentagona, segmentis 
imbricatis vix 1 cm. longis. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (3755 Merrill) January, 1004. 

65. Pteris ensiformis Burm. Fl. Ind. 230, var. permixta n. var. 

An insular form, characterized by the apex of the fertile frond being elongated 
into a linear caiuliform appendage mucli exceeding the plant. fiirnished witli 
irregular short obtuse horizontal lobes as in P. heterovwrpha. 

Panay, Capiz (56 Copelund) January, 1004. 

66. Pteris cretica Linn. var. stenophylla Hook. et Grev. Ic. Fil. (1820) 
/. 130. P. digitata Wall. Cat. 01. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal (53 Foancorthy) January, 1006; District of Bontoc, 
Sagada (1003 Copeland) November, 1005, identical with specimens from India, 
Gharwal, Bhatta Massuri, leg. Hope; Sikkim, Tendong, leg. Gamble, Xo. 10340. 

Pteris cretica is exceedingly variable in the Philippines, I have not seen from 
the Archipelago forms resembling those of Europe, but the above specimens 
match closely P. stenophyUa, with 3 to several pinnae at the sumtnit of the 
frond, more or less fan-Iike, the tips elongated. Texture normal, firm, shining, 
light green. 

67. Pteris intromissa n. subsp. 

Differt a typo P. creticae pinnis et segmentis angustioribus magis 
decurrentibus, obscure aut plumbeo-viridiljus fere glaucinis, opacis, tex- 
tura tenuiter papyracea soro angustissimo, nervis tenttissimis suboccultis. 
Rhizomate brevi, radicoso, stipitibus fasciculatis, tenuibus rufo- aut 
fusco-stramineis opacis, fronde 30 cm. longa et lata, apice ternata, infra 
pinnata, pinnis oppositis, mediis simplicibus infiiiiis profunde l)i- aut 
tri-partitis, decurrentibus lineari-lanceolatis aut linearibus caudatis, 20 
cm. longis, sterilibus 12 mm. fertilibus (5 mm. latis, sterilibus a basi 
ad apicem, fertilil)us apice acute serratis, nervis tenuissimis parum 
manifestis, simplicibus aut furcatis, obliquis soro indiisioque angustissimo 



174 CHRIST. 

0.7 mm. lato. Textura tenuiter papyraeea, eolore opaco obscure viridi 
subglauco, 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao (700 Copeland) March, 1904. LuzoN, Province 
of Bengiiet, Sablau (61G0 Elmer) April, 1904: Province of Rizal, Montalban 
(Loher) 1896; Province of Bataan, Lamao River (3122 Merrill) October, 1903. 

Tlie sanie species is found in China, Swatow, leg. Henry. 

VITTARIA Sm. 

68. Vittaria Merrliiii n. sp. 

Rhizomate pennae corvinae crassitie, horizontaliter et longe repente 
vix ranioso non caespitoso, setis tenuissimis 0.6 cm. longis erectis 
atrofuscus tecto, stipitibus remotis basi articulatis et setulosis, tenuibus, 
1 mm. diametro pendentibus, fiexuosis, 20 cm. longis, et tandem in 
laminam deeuxrentem sensim transeuntibus, fuscostramineis, lamina 
60 cm. et ultra longa, 1 cm. usque ad 1.8 cm. lata lineari, acuminata 
sed saepe dilatata et irregulariter bi- ad quadrifida, lobis falcatis acutis 
1.5 cm. longis, costa tenui saepe inconspicua, nervis valde elongato- 
obliquis tenuibus, seriebus 4 ad 5 utrinque, soro angustissimo, stricte 
marginali, indusio 0.7 mm. lato pallido tecto. Textura flaccida, colore 
dilute virente, opaco. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Monnt Apo (151G, 1192 Copchind) October, 
April, 1904, 1,200 to 1,5,50 m. alt. ; Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley (104 Mrs. 
Clemens) January, 1906, alt. 6G0 m. Mindoro, Baco River (4044 Merrill) 
March, 1905, near sea level. 

A species related to Vittaria eJongota Sw., but with very slender and elongated 
stipes, the fronds very broad with a tendency to bccome enhirged and cleft at 
the apex, the rhizome elongated and running like tliat of Polypodium. The 
forking of tlie fronds reminds one of Hecistopteris, and of its affinity witli 
Vittaria whicli (Joehel, based on anatomical characters, has asserted. 

69. Vittaria pachystemma n. sp. 

Rhizomate repente more Polypodii, pennae anserinae crassitie, setulis 
crispatis raris nigris coronato, aliter nudo, stipitibus non fasciculatis 
sed approximatis basi articulatis cum costa rufostramineis, 6 cm. longis, 
8 mm. et ultra latis, sensim in laminam transeuntibus, lamina 25 ad 30 
cm. longa falcata lineari-lanceolata acuta nec longe acuminata 12 mm. 
lata, costa plana sed manifesta 1 mm. hita rufostraminea, soris angus- 
tissimis a basi laminae ad apicem continuis, submarginalibus, indusio 
vix 0,5 mm, lato pallido. Textura succulenta sicce coriacea, opaca, colore 
lurido-glaucina, planta nuda. 

Mindanao, Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1589 Copeland) Janviary, 
1905, alt. 500 m. 

A species with succulent coriaceous opaque pointed falciform leaves and thick 
stipes. 

70. Vittaria Philippinensis Christ in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 6 (1906) 1007. 

I have a specimen, quite identical with tliis species, from tlie Liu Kiu Islands, 
Okinawa, Matsumura 213. 



SPICILIGIUM FILICUM PHILirPINENSIUM. 175 

71. Vittaria subcoriacea n. sp. 

Rhizomate uti videtur l)reviter repente, squamis tenuissimis setaceis 
nigrofuscis 0.5 cm. longis cum foliorum l)asi dense vestito, foliis fascicu- 
latis (ca. 8) breviter stipitatis, i. e., lamina in stipitem 3 ad 5 cm. longam 
sensim decrescente, costa stipitis valida, lucida, castanea, sed in lamina 
sensim applanata minusque manifesta, fronde 55 cm. longa lineari 8 mm. 
lata acutiuscula, margine late (2 mm.) reflexo adpresso, in angulo sorum 
1 mm. latium omnio tegente, soro margineque infra medium folium 
incipiente et ad apicem continuo, nervis facie superiore prominentibus 
fere longis simplicibus valde obliquis. Textura suberosa, folio sicco 
1 mm. crasso, fragillimo, colore ad basin plantae atrocastaneo, supra 
ochraceo-viridi, facie minute rugulosa puberula. 

Palawax, Vietoria Peak (069 Foxworihy) March, 1906, alt. 1,100 m. 

Charaeterized by beintr biittle sncculent. thick. the costa very strong, shining 
below, Hattened and not proniinent above, tlie naked niargins broadly reflexed, 
iinder wliich the soriferons line is conipletely hidden, nerve.s siniple, long, very 
obliqiie. 

PLEUROGRAMME (Bl.) Presl. 

72. Pleurogramme Loheriana Christ in Biill. Herb. Boiss. H. 6 (1906) 1006. 
LuzoN. Province of I5ataaii. Mount Mariveles (1388 CoiH^land) August, 1904; 

(127 Whitford) May, 1904; Uistrict of Lepanto, ^NIount Data (1883 Copeland) 
Noveniber, 190,5, a form witli bifurcate pinnse. Mindanao, Province of Zam- 
l)oanga, 8an Ramon ( 17()3 Copeland) May, 190.5; Province of Misamis, Mount 
Malindang (4619 Mearns tG Hutchinson) May, 1906. 

It is related to 1'. pusiUa (Blume), {Vittaria falcata Kze.) difl"ering from 
that species in liaving tlie soriferous line sunk in an exacth^ marginal groove, 
tliat is to say, placed in the tliick tissiie of tlie leaf, so tliat it presents a border 
of sporangia emerging from tlie groove, while in P. pusiUa the sori are arranged 
in an intramarginal groove tliat does not reach to tlie border of the frond. 

ANTROPHYUM Kaulfuss. 

73. Antropiiyum Clementis n. sp. 

Folio elougato-hinceolato caudato in apicem et in stipitem aktum 
sensim excurrente, cum stipite 30 cm. longa, medio hitissima ibique 
22 mm. lata, costa flava vix 8 cm. longa mox omnino desineute, areolis 
fere 2.5 cm. longis 2 mm. latis fere 12 in folii diametro, verticalibus, 
soris filiformibus atrobrunneis submarginalibus (seriebus fere tribus 
utrinque) folio medio soris destituto, longitudine vahle irregidari, ab 
0.5 em. ad T cm. longis, verticalibus^ haud conjunctis, 2 mm. distantibus 
non convexis sed sulco minimo faciei superioris respondentibus. Textura 
subdiaphama herbacea, colore smaragdino, folio margine tenuissimo 
hyali^no circumdato. 

Mixdanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley (119 :Mrs. Clemens) January, 1906, 
alt. 660 m. 

Cliaracterized by its frond when dry being light gi-een, tlie stipe witli decurrent 
margins, the costa ceasing at the base of the frond, the apex shar]) and elongated, 
the tissue diphanous, the sori vertical and not joined. 



1 76 CHRIST. 

ELAPHOGLOSSUM Schott. 

74. Elaphoglossum Copelandi n. sp. 

Rliizoiiiate ropente lignoso, fore digiti niinoris crassitie, nigro, setnlis 
subulatis atrohrunnois ])arce vestito, stipitibus subarticulatis, approxiniatis 
nec fasciculatis basi atrofuscis scpuiniis lanceohitis parvis l)runneis sparsis, 
25 cm. longis, rufostramineis, sulcatis, pennae corvinae crassitie, squamnlis 
atratis fimbriato-laeeratis vestitis, fronde sterili lanceolato-elongata usque 
ad 43 cm. longa, 2.5 cm. lata versus baSin apicemque acutum attenuata 
nec decurrente, costa manifesta prominente rufa, nervis occultis hori- 
zontalibus 1 mm. distantibus ad marginem sensim protensis nec clavatis 
simplicibus aut basi furcatis. Textura chartacea firma, colore obscure 
l)runneo, subnitente, facie superiore squamis sparsis notata, inferiore 
densius squamis vestita, margine costaque squamis majoribus valde fim- 
briatis cinnamomeis passim ciliata, squamis peltatis longe ciliato-fimbria- 
tis ciliis numerosis (20 ad 30) squamis partim minoribus hyalinis nec 
coloratis partim majoribus cinnamomeis, i. e. cellulis nucleis rufo-fulvis 
•impletis. Frondis fertilis stipite usque ad 40 cm. longa, lamina 35 cm. 
longa, 1 cm. lata lineari, latere superiore densissime squamoso, inferiore 
omnino sporangiis brunneis impleto. 

MiNDANAO, Distriet of Davao, Moimt Apo (1014, 1,541 Copeland) April, 
October, 1904, alt. 1,800 m. 

A large species related to Elaphoglossum petiolatuni (Sw.). Scales large, 
peltate, deeply ciliate, some of them colorless, otlier larger and with dark brown 
centers. 

ir^. Elaphoglossum petiolatum (Sw. ) Urban Symb. Ant. 4 (100.3) 61. 
Acrostichum petiolatum Sw. Prodr. (1788) 128; A. viscosum Sw. 

LuzoN, Province of Bengiiet, Baguio (6509 Elmer) Jime, 1904; (.5125 Curran) 
August, 1906; Dakhin (1838 CopeJand) October, 1905. 

A form with lacerate and fringed, reddish, very abundant scales, the fertile 
fronds 30 cm. long, the sterile ones 1.5 cm. wide. 

Previously collected in the Philippines by Cuming, but not included by Cope- 
lond in his Polypodiacese of tlie Philippines.''' 

70. Elaphoglossum laurifolium (Thouars) Moore Ind. 16. Acrostichum 
laurifolium Thouars FI. Trist. d'Acunha 31. 

LuzoN, District of Lepanto, Mount Data (1866 Copeland) October, 1905. 

DifTers from E. latifolium of tropical America by its long creeping rhizome, 
its distant long stipitate and sharply pointed leaves and its smaller size. 

Ceylon through Malaya. 

CYCLOPHORUS Desv. 

77. Cyclophorus Lingua (Thimb.) Desv. Prodr. (1827) 224. Acrostichum 
Lingua Thunb. FI. Jap. 330. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (1816 Copeland) October, 1905. Minda- 
NAO, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley (118 Mrs. Clcmens) January, 1906; Diatrict of 
Davao, Todaya (1303 Copcland) April, 1904. 

'"'Covt. Lah. Publ. 28 (1905). 



SPICILIGIFM FILICUM rHILIPPINENSIUM. '^'^^ JC.^Ofu&^U^ /jj^ 

This plant of teniperate and southern China and of Japan, Liu Kiu Islands >^^^tA<(>^;(at/5<«* (f! ^^ 

and Formosa, lias been indicated by some authors as extending to British India, // A Q^y{.gj. 

but the very rich material in my herbarium, following Gieserihagen's revision, /'^'Z^<?-v^ 

does not show this range. Tlie most soutliern specimens I have seen are froni "f^ti/uvettf/y^t/tr ^a/O-CtA 

Annam, leg. Cadiere, and Tonkin, leg. Billet. The species appears again in the ^ ^ /7 / 

Pliilippines with many other characteristic Chinese forms.jThat even the rare ^- uim^-'y't^*^^**^ 

species of tlie Philippine flora are found to be widely distributed in the difierent ^, (fh(ri/^ii.jM^, -^ZOiJzJL) 

ishmds of the Arehipelago, as is tlie case witli the present one. is .some evidence ff ^ /ju 

as to the unitv of tlie group. ^^ /v^ •- 

POLYPODIUM Linn. 

7S. Polypodium phyllomanes Christ in Bull. Acad. Mans. (1902) 210, var. 
ovatum (Wall.) V. oraium Wall ; Hook. et Grev. Icon. Fil. (1827) t. J,l. 

LuzoN, District of Lepanto, Mount Data (1908 Copeland) November, 1905, 
alt. 1,800, m. 

This essentially Chinese type, widely distributed in China and extending into 
British India only in the high valleys of Bhootan, Khasia and Sikkini, appears 
again in the mountains of northern Luzon with many other characteristic Chinese 
plants. The specimens agree perfectly witli the slightly elongated form of China. 

79. Polypodium hemionitideum Wall. Cat. (1828) 284. 

Luzox, Province of Benguet, Baguio (967 Barnes) May to June, 1904, found 
previously in Luzon by Warburg. 

A continental type, China, Yunnan, leg. Henry; Forraosa, leg. Faurie, Mnt- 
sumura ; India, Khasia, leg. Austin, Clarke, Blanford; Sikkim, leg. Jerdon; also 
reported from the Xilgherries, southern India. 

80. Polypodium suboppositum Christ in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 6 (1906) 995. 

Luzox, District of Lepanto, Bagnen (1964 Copeland) Novemk^r, 1905, the type 
from Moiuit Pinatubo, Province of Zambales, Luzon (Loher). 

81. Polypodium Sablanianum n. sp. 

1 have previously treated the polymorphism of the Microsorium '' type of 
which the best known representative is P. punctatum (L.) Sw. The present new 
*form, from its venation is almost exactly intermediate between P. punctaium Sw.. 
and P. myriocarpum ^lett. In the former, the lateral nerves are very regular, 
oblique, reaching the margin and inclosing 4 or 5 areolae, which are elongated, 
rectangular, between the rachis and the margins; these areolae are about equal, 
and the network of nerves is weak, inclosed in and more or less hidden by the 
fleshy tissue. In P. myriocarpum on the contrary, the lateral nerves do not 
reach the margin of the frond, and inclose only one large areola along tlie rachis 
and another narrower one between it and the margin, and the veins are strong 
and rather prominent. P. Hahlanianum has an even more delicate texture than 
/*. 7nyriocarpum, and its nerves are slender, not proniinent and form a single 
very large square areola, at the side of which is another very narrow obscure 
one. The plant is larger, 73 cm. long, 5.5 cni. wide, the apex of tlie frond long 
caudate, the base long decurrent, the stipe very short. Texture membranous, 
color bright green. the costa light yellow, shining. the fronds which appear to be 
solitary and not fascicled have undulate margins, the rhizome is climbing, 
brown, as tliick as a goose quill, eovered witli stitt' subulate dark l)r<»wn 4 mm. 
long scales. 

Luzox, Province of Benguet, Sablan (6142 Elmer) April. ]0()4. 

'^ Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 6 (1906) 99.'J. 



178 CHRIST.* 

82. Polypodium flaccidum n. sp. (Phymaiodes.) 

Khizoniate repente pennae anserinae crassitie, griseo-hrunneo ncc 
glauco, ratlicoso, stipitihus solitariis articulatis hasi parcis setulis nigris 
praedito aut glahris, tenuihus, stramineis, (i ad 8 ciii. h)ngis sed oh 
laminan.ionge decurrentem fere usqiie ad Inisin alatis, fronde 40 cm. 
longa 1(S cm. hita, ovali, longe sensimque decurrente et loho simplici 
caiidato 18 em. longo terminata, 4 aut 5 lohis lateralihus ala costali 
utrinque 13 mm. hita, lohis remotis 10 cm. longis, 1.5 cm. latis acutissime 
caudatis sinuhiis vastis rotundatis 3 ad 3 cm. latis interjectis, marginibus 
integris rhachi costisque straraineis manifestis, nervis lateralihus curvatis 
tenuissimis versus marginem evanidis, areas et areolas numerosis oblon- 
gis nervulos furcatis ineludentihus, soris irregidariter hi- aut triseriatis 
numerosis 1.5 mm. latis rotundatis fere planis ochraceis, facie superi- 
ore macula ohscura vix impressa notatis, fovea marginata sorali deficiente. 
Textura flaccide papyracea, diaphana, colore dilute virente. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Bosoboso (1087 Ramos) July, 1906. 

A species near P. phyinatodes, but distinouished by its long deeurrent frond, 
tliin and dia])lianous texture and sniall irregiilar sori which are not innnersed 
in pits. 

83. Polypodium palmatum Blunie Fil. Jav. 150. 

Copehiiid-" credits Polypodium trifidum Don to tlie Philippines, but as lie 
presunies, 1. c, all the specimens from tlie Arehipehigo are referable to P. 
pdlmatum Blume, also those tliat I have cited previously for P. trifidum.-^ 
Typical P. trifidum is an essentially Chinese species whicli does not extend to 
Japan nor to tlie Malayan Archipehigo. 

84. Polypodium productum n. sp. 

Khizomate hreviter repente radicoso squamis minutis 2 mm. longis 
setaceis sparso, foliis approximatis nudis 63 cm. longis in stipitenf 
stramineum 10 cm. longum sensim decrescentibus longe et acute acumi- 
natis, medio 1 ad 12. cm.' versus apicem 4 mm. latis, costa prominente, 
straminea margine anguste revoluto, nervis occultis, soris 30 ad 50 
utrinque marginalibus impressis versus apicem ultra marginem protrusis 
ovatis 4 mm. longis, 2 ad 3 mm. distantihus. Textura rigide coriacea, 
colore flavovirescente suhlucido. 

MiNDANAO, Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (158.5 Copeland) January,, 
1905, alt. 175 m. 

A species related to P. loiifiifoliuin Mett., wliich is also found in the Archipelago, 
Palawan (G31 Foxworthy) April, 190(), differing from the latter in its firm 
texture, pale color, shining, the fronds narrower and long actiminate at the 
apex, the margins inflexed and the sori much elongated. P. lovgifolium is 
broader, the apex not sharp, tlie texture less firm, opaque, dark brown when 
dry, the sori often more roinided. 

"^Oovt. Lah. Puhl. 28 (1905) 129. 
'"^Bull. Herh. Boiss. 6 (1898) 200. 



SPICILIGIUM FILICUM PHILirPIMRNSIUM. 179 

« GLEICHENIA Smith. 

{ § Diplopterygium. ) 

On exainination of the Philippine forms of this group with the aid 
of snrvey ii-iven hy Presl -- it is possil)le to distinguish the following fonns : 

85. Gleichenia excelsa J. Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3: 420, nomen nudum ; 
Hook. 8p. Fil. 1 : 5. Tah. .',. B; Pvesl 1. c. ;i85. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (600G FAmer) ; (Loher) March, 1897. 

This species is distribiited from nortliern India to central China and Java. 
Shillong (Clarke :3747S) ; Munipore (11'«// (Jl:39). Penang Hills (Ridley) . 
Yunnan, Mengtze (Heiiry 91(i7); Moilim (Fghert 1897); Hongkong (Faher 
1091); Ningpo Mountains (Fnher2U)). Java (l:<chipier) . 

86. Gleichenia glauca (Thunbg. Fl. Jap. 338, Polypodium) Hook. Sp. Fil. 
1: 4 (Swartz Syn. 1()4, 390, Mcrtensia). 

LuzoN, Province of Tayabas. Mount Banajao (Loher) February, 1906, alt. 
2,250 m. 

Identical with specimens from Japan excejit for a covering of reddish hairs 
along the cost* in young phints. Tlie discover.y of tliis species in the Philippines 
augments tlie number of sjjecies of tlie temperate regions of tlie East tliat extend 
to the highhinds of the Pliilippines. It is on the whole rather a remarkable 
distribution, for in this group il is the only species found in Japan, while from 
CJhina 1 know Gleichenia excelsu, G. (/igantea Wall. (Yunnan, Delavay) and the 
following: 

87. Gleichenia laevissima Christ in Bull. Acad. Mans. (1902) 268. 
LuzoN, Province of iienguet, Pauai (1954 Goprlaiid) , 2,000 m. alt. 

Still another Chinese type, of whicli 1 liave specimens from Yunnan (Delavay) 
and Lu Mount (Faher) August, 1897. 

LYGODIUM Sw. 

88. Lygodium Basilanicum n. sp. 

Axihns ochreis tennihus vix ultra 1 nnn. crassis, pinnis petiolatis, pe- 
tiolo 3 cm. longo angustissime alato, pinna ainbitu semirotunda 12 cm. 
longa et lata, dichotoma, partihus petiolulatis (petiolo 0.5 cm. longo 
alato) pedatifidis, 3 aut -i-lohis, centro indiviso, 1 ad 2 cm. longo et lato, 
lobis patulis, 9 cm. longis, G mm. latis, linearibus acuminatis integris 
tenuissime marginatis, loho hasali deflexo, costis tenuissimis manifestis 
rufostramineis, nervis promimilis ohliquis 2 aut 3-furcatis, confertis, lohis 
fertilihus niedio aut infra medium suhito usque ad alam 1 mm. latam 
contractis, sporophyllis pectinato-confertis, 2.5 mm. longis, 1 mm. latis, 
ntrinque eirca 8 sporangia gerentihus hrunneis munitis. Textura coria- 
cea nec papyracea, colore sicce brunneo, opaco. 

Basilan (28 DeVore et Hoover) April, 1903. 

A small species of the circinatum group, differing from L. circinatum by its 
pinnae being dichotomous and with petioled pedately arranged ))innules, tlie 
segments not dimorphous but narrowed and bearing the sporophylls on the upper 
half. Dimensions of L. Japonicxim. 

--Epim. Bot., 384. 



1 8() CIIRIST. 

CYATHEA Siii. 

RD. Cyathea rufopannosa n. sp. 

Stipite oreeto arboreo, 2 iii. alto aut altioro, anguloso, 3 cni. diametro, 
stipito digiti crassitie, cylindrico, 55 cm. alto, castaneo, hasi verrucis 
nunierosis brovibus sod huic inde pungontibus scaberrinia ot squaniis 1.5 
cni. longis lanceolatis acuniinato-falcatis dure scariosis nec diaplianis 
lucidissimis castaneis tecta, undiciue cum rhachi et costis indumento 
furfuraceo fibrilloso spisso tecto, fronde late ovata usque ad 1.5 m. longa 
(Copeland) fere ()0 cm. iata versus basin attenuata, rhachi digiti crassitie 
verrucis cabra rufotomentosa et setulis subulatis fibrillosa, pinnis reinotis 
uti videtur ca. 15 utrinque, infra apicem pinnatisectum, infimis defiexis, 
mediis 37 cm. iongis (infimis 22 cm. longis) 11 cm. latis, sessilibus, ad 
basin paulum attenuatis, aeuniinatis, pinnulis ca. 30 utrinque, approxi- 
matis 5.5 cm. longis 1.5 cm. latis lancoolatis acutiusculis noc caudatis, 
usque ad rhacliim incisis, segmontis poctinatis ca. 20 utrinque, ligulatis, 
obtusiusculis, crenulatis, infimis posterioribus dentatis, 5 mm. longis, 

2 mm. latis parce setulosis, nervis furcatis ca. 8 utrinque, costis pinnul- 
arum subtus squamis lanceolatis rufis nec non squamulis bullatis um- 
bonatis rufis dense obtectis, soris parvis paucis costae pinnulae approxi- 
matis ultra medium segmenti raro protensis, confertis rufis 1 mm. latis, 
indusio brunneo-rufo irregulariter confracto more Amphicosmiae. Text- 
ura herbacea, colore partium frondosarum laete virente, partium axialium 
rufo-cinnamomeo. 

MiNDANAO, Province of Zamboanga, San Ranion ( 1730, 1735 Copeland) April, 
1905, alt. 1,200 m. 

A striking species, the base of the stipe with short sharp spines, the scales at 
the base of the stipe large, firm, shining, dark brown, the axial parts and even 
the costse covered with a dense fibrillovis brick-red pubescence, the fronds tripin- 
natifid, the pinnules and segments serrate, the hitter sniall, slightly dentate, 
the sori small, reddish, borne near the costa. 

90. Cyathea Loheri Christ in Bull. Herb. Boiss. II. 6 (1906) 1007. 

This species was discovered by Loher on Moimt Banajao and on Mount 
Maquiling, Luzon. A form occurs on Mount Tonglon (Santo Tomas) ; that is 
sufficiently distinct to warrant being described as a variety. 

Var. Tonglonensis n. var. 

Stipite rugoso et cicatricoso, squamis sulmlato-setaceis basi verrucosis 
i^exuosis flaccidis atrobrunneis ultra 1 cm. longis patentibus, nec rigidis 
adpressis scarioso-argonteis tecto, costis densissime squamis bulUitis l)run- 
neis tectis, segmentis minoribus denso pectinatis. 

LuzoN, Province of Bcnguet, Mount Tonglon (4991 Curran) August, 1900. 

It is possible tliat Alsophila lepifera. J. Sni. apud Hook. 8p. Fil. 1 : 54, is 
the same as Ci/alhra Lohrri, but tlie (h'scri])tif)n of the former is too incomplete 
to verify tliis. 



SFICILKJIUM FILICUM rHILUTINBNSIUM. 181 

01. Cyathea Negrosiana n. sp. 

Stipite digiti et ba.si fere pollicis crassitie, l)asi atro-, supra ciim 
rhachi costisqiic rufo-castaneo, verrucis minutis creberrimis, scaberrimo, 
lucido, basi squamis subulato-setaceis flexuosis lucentibus atrofuscis 2 
cm. longis dense vestito, ob pinnas abl)reviatis inferiores valde descen- 
dentes solummodo 15 aut 20 cm. longo, fronde tripinnata ultra 1 m. 
longa 25 cm. lata, ovato-acuminata versus l)asin sen.sim attenuata, pinnis 
remotis, 10 ad 15 utrinque, erecto-patentibus mediis longissimis, 35 cm. 
longis, 14 cm. latis, caiidato-acuminatis, sessilibus, versus basin non 
attenuatis, pinnulis remotiusculis, 1.5 cm. distantibus, sessilibus, ca. 20 
utrinque infra apicem pinnatifidum, 7 cm. longis, acuminatis, 14 mm. 
latis, fere usque ad costani incisis, segmentis approximatis falcato- 
lanceolatis, acutiusculis, 7 mni. longis, 2.5 mm. latis, obtuse crenulatis, 
costis costulisque dense squamulis ovatis bullatis rufo brunneis more 
C. Loheri vestitis, nervis basi furcatis, 8 aut 10 utrinque, soris costulis 
adpressis, 3 aut 5 utrinque minutis, indusio griseo-brunneo primum 
globulari nitidulo mox confracto, frustulis squamiformibus irregularibus 
receptaculum nigrum elevatum circumdantibus. Textura herbacea, 
colore atroviridi, opaco. 

Negros, Mount Silay (1536 Whifford) May, 1006, alt. 1.000 ni. 

This species was determined by Copeland as Vyathea Christii, Init it is 
distinguished from the latter by its axial parts being richly covered with 
furfuraceous scales, by the costse being covered with rounded intiated scales, by 
its membranous textvue and very reduced size. 

92. Cyathea ferruginea n. sp. 

Stipite pennae cvgni crassitie cum rhachi subnitido, anguloso, castaneo, 
floccoso-paleaceo sublaevi, pinnis 26 cm. longis, 11.5 cm. latis stipitatis 
ovato-acuminatis basi aliquantum attenuatis, i. e., pinnula infima abbre- 
viata, costis pinnarum indumento floccoso paleaceo squamis rufis crispis 
e basi ovata subulatis crispulis patentibus rufis constituto tectis, pinnulis 
ca. 15 utrinque infra apicem lobatum, remotis, i. e., spatio 2 cm. lato 
separatis, lanceolatis, acutis nec caudatis sessilibus G cm. longis, 11 em. 
latis, ad alam angustam incisis, segmentis ca. 14 utrinque confertis, 
angulo fere nullo interjecto, falcatis acutiusculis aut obtusis. ovatis, 0.5 
cm. longis, 3 mm. latis, minute crenulatis, costulis pinnularum supra 
puberulis subtus omnino squamis rufo-griseis ovatis adpressis acutis 3 
mm. longis tectis, faceibus fere glabris, nervis 6 plerumque furcatis, 
soris mediis 4 aut 5 utrinque, cinnamomeis, vix 1 mm. latis, conflucn- 
tibus, indusio fugaci vix conspicuo, frustulis cum squamulis mixtis. 
Textura herbacea, colore dilute viridi, opaco. 

Palawan, Mount Pulgar (500 Fox-irorthij) Marcli. 1900, alt. 1.150 m. 
A small species 2 m. higli, acaulescent according to Foxworthy's notes, growing 
just below tlie sunimit of the mountain on an exposed ridge in the mossy forest. 



182 CIIRIST. 

ALSOPHILA R. 15r. 

!»;{. Alsophila calocoma ii. sp. 

Caiulice arl)oresccntc', sti])itc ad hasiii coiiia (lciisissiiiia ct itiilclicn-iiiia 
squainaruin scariosum argenteo-lucidarum i)allidoi'uiii sed apicc rufarum, 
e basi 3 min. lata ovatoruin, longc subulato caudatarum aristatarumque, 
usque ad 4 aut 5 cm. longarum ornato, aliter incniii, sed verrucis minutis 
rugoso, rhachi tuberculis verrucosis creberrimis rugosissimo, squamu- 
lisque furfuraceis sparsa rufo-ochracea, opaca, fronde tripinnatisccta, 
pinnis amplis 75 cm. longis, 25 cm. latis acuminato-caudatis petiolatis 
(petiolo 2 ad 3 cm. longo) pinnulis confertis 20 ad 30 utrinque infra 
apicem lobatum, fere sessilibus, 15 cm. longis, 2.5 cm. latis e basi lata 
lanceolato-acuminatis, infimis haud abbreviatis, supremis late adnatis 
et decurrentibus, costis rufo-brunneis tenuibus, cum costularum parte 
inferiore subtus serie squamularum candidarum lucidarum ovatarum 
adpressarum ciliatorum elegantissime vestitis, partibus foliaceis plantae 
laevibus, pinnulis usque ad costam incisis, segmentis falcato-ligulatis 
obtusiusculis aut acutiusculis, 11 mm. longis, 3 mni. latis, fere integris 
rarius crenulatis, pectinato-confertis, inferioribus liberis, i. e., basi spatio 
separatis et aliquantulurn angustatis, ca. 35 utrinque, nervis ca. 12 tenuis- 
simis furcatis saepe tri- sive pluries-furcatis. soris 8 ad 10 utrinque, mediis 
1 mm. latis sese tangentibus nec confluentibus cinnanionieis globosis 
receptaculo minuto elevato nigro, textura flaccide herbacea, colore glauco- 
aut plumbeo-viridi, supra obscuro, sulitus pallidiore. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Moiint Alahnt {Lohrr) Febrnary, 1904, alt. 1,900 
ni.; Angilog (Loher) March, 1906; Province of Benguet, near Baguio (Loher) 
March, 1897. 

A beantiful speeies characterized hy the shining liairs on the stipe and the 
shining white or inctallic scales on tlie nnder snrface of the segnients. 

This is the species that I liad previonsly identified "^ as .4. lepifera J. Sm., but 
1 am now convinced that it is a distinct species. The sliort description of 
A. lepifera J. Sm., given by Uooker " is quite insufficient froni which to identify 
Hmith's species, except tliat it appears to be near, if not identical with A. to- 
mentosa (Blume), as Christensen supposes in liis Index Filicum 44, or perhaps 
the same as Cyathea Loheri Christ. A. culocoma is distinguished from A. 
kiteirosa, with which it shares tlie character of the costal and costular scales, 
by its whitish scales and by its basal segments being free and attenuate toward 
the base, as well as by tlie marked glaucescenee of the frond. In A. latehrosa 
I have never observed the exce])tionally long scales wliich are shining, silvery or 
somewhat golden in color and strongly pointed, 4 to 5 cm. in length, such as are 
found in A. calocoma. It is a delicate species with trifurcate nerves and a very 
rugose rachis. 

Var. congesta (Alsophila lepifera var. congcsta Christ in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
6 (1898) 137). 

This variety is identical with the type in having the same very large basal, 
scarious, silvery, subulate, 5 cm. long scales which are 4 mm. wide below, 

'''BuU. Herb. Boiss. 6 (1898) 137. 

-* Sp. Fil. 1 : 54. • 



SriCILIGIUM FILICUM PHILIPPI^ENSIUM. 183 

yellowish rliachis wliich is very rough with small spines, small whitisli costular 
scales, aiifl tlie })asal segiiients free, reniote and narrowed below, but it is readily 
distinguishable from the type by its sliorter narrower segments which are more 
falcate and more strongly serrate. The pinnules do not exceed 8 cm. in length. 
In general appearance quite different from the type, but having the same essential 
characters. It appears to be an alpine form of the species. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Arambibi (Loher) March, 190.3; Province of Benguet 
((j504 Elmer) June, 1904. 

94. Alsophila latebrosa (Wall.) Hook. 8p. Fil. 1: 37. 

The ordinary forni of this species so common in India, the Malayan Peninsula, 
Java, Borneo, Celebes and Amboina (herb. Christ), is not known to me from the 
Pliilippines, where the species is represented by a form notably larger. It is 
the same as with Alsophihi contaniinans, which is represented in tlie Philippines 
by the large varietj' Celehica. 

Var. major n. var. 

Rhachi fulvo straminea, hievi aut minutissime furfuracea, pinnis ca. 
28 utrinque infra apicem, 55 cm. longis, 18 cm. latis fere sessilibus 
oblongo-acuminatis, pinnulis confertis recte patentibus sessilibus 9 cm. 
longis, 2 cm. latis oblongo-caudatis, usque ad costani tenuam nigram 
incisis, segmentis imbricato-confertis rotundato-obtusis rectis oblongis ca. 
20 utrinque 1 cm. longis 2.5 mm. hitis, crenuhitis, nervis ca. 9 utrinque, 
tenuissimis basi furcatis saepe trifurcatis, costuht squamulis rotundis 
peltato-umbilicatis 0.3 mm. hitis flavis elegantissime vestitis, fronde 
caeterum glabra, tenuiter herbacea, colore obscure viridi subtus pallido, 
opaco. 

MiNDANAo, Province of Surigao (325 Bolster) May, I90G: District of Davao, 
Mount Batangan {Warburg). 

The costular scales in A. lepifera are white, oval and larger than in the above 
variety. 

DICKSONIA L.' Herit. 

95. Dicksonia Copelandi n. sp. 

Ampla, basi stipitis coma densa pilorum tenuissimoruiu T mm. lon- 
gorum rufobrunneorum coperta, stipite plantae junioribus iisdem pilis 
vestito, rufostramineo, subnitente, pinnis deltoideo-acuminatis, petiolatis, 
45 cm. longis 24 cni. basi latis inaequalibus, antice auctis, pinnulis'^ ca. 
20 utrinque confertis, inferioribus mediisque deltoideis. infimis 15 cm. 
longis 12 cm. latis petiolatis, acuminatis, pinnulis"^ deltoideo-oblongis 
acuminatis ca. 12 utrinque, subinaequalibus, infimis G cm. longis 3 cm. 
latis, petiolulatis, pinnulis^^ infimis 1.5 cm. longis basi 8 mm. latis 
liljeris oblongis acutis sul)inaequalil)us profunde serratis, dentibus trigono- 
acutis mucronatis, nervis suboccultis in pinnulis^"^ pinnatis furcatis, soris 
in dentibus terminalibus sed mucrone superatis, uno pro dente, praecipue 
antice positis, numerosis, brimneis 1 mm. latis globosis coriaceis irregu- 
lariter bivalvis. Textura coriacea, costis nervisque pilosis, facie superiore 
glabra subnitente, colore ochraceo-viridi. 



184 ciiiusT. 

LUZON, Proviiicc (if liciif^uct, I5iij;iii(> (Lalicr), Mnrcli, 18!)7, alt. 1,400 iii.; 
(0025 FAiiicr) Maicli, 1004: Distiict of Lcpaiito, P.a-^iicn (1012 Copcland) 
Novenibcr, 1905, alt. 2,000 iii. 

A Hpecics closcly reiatcd to I). strdnnnca Lahiil., biit strongly pilosc, larj^er, 
quadripinnatififl, tlie pinna! and i)inn\iics Itroadcr and niore stroiif^ly serrate, 
broadly deltoid, tlie pinnnlcs of tlic tliird ordcr broadcr tiic lobcs sliorter and 
broader. Kcsenibling tlie Soutii Anicrican D. cairiifolia S\v. 

MARATTIA Sinitli. 

All the Pliilippine fornis of tliis genus tbat 1 bave examined liave been identified 
after tlie classification in tlie nionograph of DeVricse and Hfirtinrf, in whicli work 
the diagnoses are by no nieans comparative and in wliicli the differences between 
related species are not noted. Tlie number of species is so large and tlieir 
characters so uniform that tlie distinctive characters of each species should have 
been emphasized. At any rate the group nierits more attention tlian the succes- 
sors to the two Dutch botanists have given it, for certainly the forms are very 
numerous and can not all be reduced to a single species. The morphological 
diflTerences between young and adult fronds are very great, and the latter, even 
the fertile ones, frequently present characters that are ordinarily found only 
in young fronds. In diagnoses tlie adult parts only liave been considered. 

I have been able to elucidate here, witb a fair degree of certainty, the 
following forms: 

90. Marattla sambucina Blume. Enum. (1828) 256; DeVriese et Harting 
Monog. 6. 

Textura firmiter chartacea, rhaclii laevissima flava, pinuiilis sessilibus 
basi acute cuneatis, acutis, adultis 7.5 raro 11 cm. longis, 1 ad 1.4 cm. 
latis, margine omnino dentatis, dentibus obliquis raro patentibus, synangiis 
1.5 mm. a margine remotis 1.5 mm. longis non contiguis late ovatis, 
6 ad 8-loculatis. Colore pallide viridi. 

LUZON, Province of Benguet, Mount Tonglon (Lohcr) April, 1900; Baguio 
(Loher) January, 1893: Province of Union, Castilla (Loher) March, 1900. 

This is the most widely distributed form, identical with specimens from Java 
leg. Raciborski and from Celebes leg. t^arasin. It is the form previously con- 
sidered by me as M. fraxinea.'^ 

97. Marattia silvatica Blume Eniun. (1828) 256; DeVriese et Harting Monog. 
0. III. 25. 

Firmiter chartacea, rhachi laevissima fiava, pinnulis petiolulatis, basi 
acute cuneatis acutis, adultis 9 cm. longis 13 mm. latis, margine omnino 
dentatis, dentibus brevibus patentibus, synangiis fere marginalibus, fere 
contiguis, 2 mm. et ultra longis, oblongis, 13 ad 15-locularibus. Colore 
pallido. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (5833 Elmer) March, 1904. 

98. Marattia pellucida Presl Suppl. Tent. Pterid. 10; DeVriese et Harting 
Monog. 6. 

Herbacea, rhachi flava, laevissima, pinnulis petiolatis, basi abrupte 
cuneatis, apice abrupte acuminatis, adultis 10 cm. longis, 14 mm. kitis, 

-^Bull. Herh. Boiss. 6 (1898) 207. 



SPICIHGIUM FILICUM PHILIITINEXSUM. 185 

margine oninino dentatis, dentibus brevissimis apertis, synangiis 1 mm. 
a margine remotis non contiguis brevibus 1 mm. longis oblongis S-locu- 
laribus. Colore dihito viridi-plumbeo, nervis egregie pellucidis. 

MiNDAXAO, Distiict of Davao. Moiint Apo (1455 Copeland) October. 1004, 
alt. 1,550 m. 

90. Marattja vestita n. sp. 

Anipla, caudice 2.5 cm. crasso, opaco, rufobrunneo dense pustulis 
atque squamis ovatis flaccidis 1 cm. longis ct 0.5 cm. latis minoribus 
et angustioribus mixtis scabro, rhachibus rufofuscis supremis ocliraceo- 
rufis opacis et al)unde cum costis squamis lanceolatis brunneis squamu- 
lisque fibrillosis vestitis, pinnis oblongis 70 cm. et ultra longis 30 cm. 
latis, petiolo 7 cm. longo praeditis, basi attenuatis, acuminatis, pinnulis 
petiohitis ca. 10 cni. remotis 20 cm. et ultra longis, 15 cm. hitis Ijasi 
attenuatis, pinnula terniinali praeditis, pinnulis^^^ alternis valde (2.5 
cm.) remotis basi articuhitis infimis brevissime sul)petioluhitis, basi 
acute cuneatis, acuminatis, 9 cni. longis, 12 mm. latis, lanceolatis, margine 
omnino dentatis, dentibus patentibus aj^crtis, nervis conspicuis fere 2 
mm. remotis nigris simplicibus, soris minutis remotis oblongis 1 mm. 
longis ochraceis 5-locularibus subclausis. Textura firmiter sed tenuiter 
chartacea, colore supra obscure, infra pallide viridi, opaco. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Moimt Apo (1179 Copcland) April, 1904. 

A species peculiar in its axial parts being not polislicd or sliining but dull, 
dark colored, rough, and witli nunierous scales. Tlie denticulation is very open 
and the synangia are smaller than in any otlier species known from the 
Archipelago. 

100. Marattia Ternatea DeVriese et Harting Monog. 4. /. J. 10. 

Chartacea fere coriacea laevissima, pinnulis petioluhitis, petiolis squa- 
mulosis, planta caeterum glabra, rhachi ochraceo-plumbea, pinnulis basi 
cimeato-ovatis, acutis, lanceolatis, 12 ad 20 cm. longis, 2 ad 2.4 cm. httis, 
minute denticulatis et ob nuirginem inflexum fere integris, nervis valde 
remotis (ultra 2 mm.) ochraceis, synangiis remotis, oblongis, idtra 3 
mm. longis, 15-locularibus, 1.5 mm. a margine remotis. Colore supra 
obscure, infra palidissime viridi. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, ^lount Mariveles (2082 Borden) Septeniber to 
December, 1904; (1110 Whiffoid) May, 1905. 

In this species the pinna» are larger than in any otlier one known froiii the 
Arcliipelago, their borders in part nearly entire and in part dentate. 

ANGIOPTERIS Hoffm. 

Anfjioptcris offers in a still greatcr degrce than Manittia the lack of palpable 
differential characters, and the diflerences between the various forins, quite 
distinct to the practiced eye, are difficult to diagnose properly. I believe it 
possible to distinguish the following species: 
54744 3 



186 ciiuisT. 

101. Angiopteris cartilagidens Cliii.st iii Hiill. llcil). J5()iss. 6 (I!K)«) 207. 
LuzoN, Province of Hciifiucl, JJajiuio (Loher), alt. J,400 in. 

One of tlic niost sliarply dcfincd .si^ecies, charactcrizcd by its dentation, tcxture 
and «cales. 
Endemic. 

102. Angiopteris similis Presl in DeVricsc et Jlarting Monog. Maratt. J7. 

MiNDANAO, Lake Lanao, Canip Keitliley (115 Mrs. Glemens) January, 1906, 
alt. 660 m. 

A spccics witli tliinly pai^yraceoiis textiire, shining, pale green, the nerves 
recurrcnt, slendcr, sligiitly visiblc, tlie sori sniall, dark brown, close to the 
niargin, the pinnules large, 18 cm. long, 21 mm. broad, tlie teetli prominent only 
at the sterile apices. 

Java. 

103. Angiopteris angustifolia rresl ex DeVriese et Harting Monog. Maratt. 
18. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Lamao River (3791 Merrill) January, 1904. Ne- 
GBOS, Gimagaan Eiver (1G59 Whifford) May, 1906. Mindanao, Lake Lanao 
(Mrs. Clemens) April, 1906: Province of Surigao (240 Bolster) April, 1906: 
District of Davao, Todaya (1459 Copchmd) October, 1904. 

This seems to be the most widely distributed species in the Archipelago, and 
was first collected by Cuming. It is distributed from Annam, leg. Cadiere, to 
Formosa, leg. Faurie, south to tlie Sunda Islands. 

104. Angiopteris caudata DeVricse et Harting Monog. Maratt. 20. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Mount Tongion (Lohcr) April, 1906; Baguio 
(5126 Curran) August, 1906; (5930 Lliiicr) March, 1904: Province of Laguna, 
Mount Maquiling (Loher) Junc, 1906. 

PinnuJes strongJy narrowcd, the upper ones 8 mm. broad, very gradually 
narrowed into the long pointcd apex. The pinnse resemble those of Ptcris 
longifolia Linn. 

105. Angiopteris pruinosa Kze. Schkuhr Suppl. 1: t. 91. 
Negko.s, Gimagan River (1652 Whitford) May, 1906. 

Fronds bluish white beneath quite similar in color to tliose of Luinuria glauca 
Blume. 

CHRISTENSENIA Maxoii. 

106. Christensenia Cumingiana n. sp. 

Omniiim reliquarum formarum adliuc cognitarum minima, rhizomate 
crasso, brevi, carnoso, radicoso, foliis approximatis, jimioribus subfasci- 
culatis, stipite usque ad 14 cm. iongo cum costis nervisque rufostramineo 
furfuraceo, frondc tam simplici ovata breviter acuta basi subcordata 
8 ad 13 cm. longa 3 ad 5 cni. lata, repanda aut grosse dentata, quam 
tripartita, pinna centrali late ovata 11 cm. longa 5 cm. lata acuta longe 
et anguste cuneata, lohato-repanda, pinnis lateralibus adnatis valde inae- 
qualibus postice cordato-auctis, antice anguste cuneatis 9 cm. longis 3 cm. 
latis, nervis manifestis, ca. 10 utrinque, rectis patentibus interstitio ca. 1 
cm. lato, facie superiore laevi inferiore albida, stomatibus rotundis dense 
tecta, laevi, synangiis vix 1.5 mm. latis (deciduis aut immaturis) brunneis 
inter nervos biseriatis, ca. 4 pro serie. Textura inodice succulenta. 



SPICILIGIUxM FILICUM PHILirriNENSIU.M. 187 

MiNDANAO, Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (Copeland s. n.) March, 1905, 
alt. 200 to 6.50 m. 

All tlie other species of Christcnscnia {Kaulfussia) known to me have the 
lateral pinnie rather strongly petioled. DeVriese and Harting have indicated in 
their Monograpli of the Marattiaceae 14, tliat the Kaulfiissia foiind by Guming 
in the Philippines, wliich was considerably smaller than the other known forms, 
might perhaps prove to be a distinct species. In comparison witli specimens from 
Assam, leg. King; Selangor, leg. Ridley ; Java, leg. Raciborski, and Sumatra, 
leg. Schneider, the specimens from Mindanao are very reduced. Tlie fertile 
frond is often simple and when it is tripartite the lobes are joined at the base, 
not petiohite, and very unequal, whitish beneath. 

BOTRYCHIUM Sw. 

107. Botrychium lanuginosum AVall., var. nanum n. var. 

LuzoN, Province of Bcnguet, Bugias {18-48 Copeland) October, 11)0.5, alt. 1,-550 
m., with thelarge form. 

Like our European Botrychium this large species has also a dwarfed form, 
about 17 cm. high, the fertile frond witli its stipe about 10 cm. high. 



SUPPLEMENT. 

There are two forms hitherto confounded as Aspidium coadunatum Wall. or 
even as A. cicutarium Sw., which is a very different West Indian species. After 
a careful examination and comparison with other specimens of the Malayan and 
wider Asiatic area, I can indicate tlie following diagnostic points: 

Aspldium coadunatum Wall. Cat. 377 non Hook. et Grev. lc. Fii. 202. 
tSagcnia J. Sm. Ilook. Journ. Bot. 4: 184. Presl Epimel. 00. 

Stipite rufo glaberrimo luccnte. Ijasi squamis ovatis acutis 0.5 cm. longis 
fiaccidis l)runneis sparso. Eachi laevi lucida flavido-rufa. Piunulis 
ovato-lanceolatis acutis, lobis late ovatis ol^tusis sive suhacutis. Faciebus 
pilis albidis brevibus pubescentibus, marginilnis ciliatis. ISTervis ad mar- 
ginem protensis, nervulis luteo-brunneis tenuibus abunde anastomosan- 
tibus, ner\ailis inclusis clavatis frequentibus. Colore laete virente, textura 
diaphana. Indusio orbiculari-reniformi nuirgine pallidiore. 

LuzoN, Bontoc, Sagada (1899 Copeland) : Province of Rizal, Bosoboso (1033 
Ramos ) . 

A common species in tropical Asia. 

Wjniaad, Malabar, leg. Bickuell ; Anamalays. Province of Madras. leg. Beddomc ; 
Mercara Coorg. 1,100-1,200 m., leg. Richter; Koon Beeling, Burma. leg. Brandi^; 
Ceylon, leg. Wall.; Yunnan, leg. Hcnry 10341, 10354; Sze tcluien, Mount Omi, leg. 
Wilon- 5376. Viti, Plcwa River, leg. Moore : Tahiti, leir. Radcond. 



^o- 



Aspidium Malayense n. sp. 

Stipite opaco vix subnitente brimneo, l)asi squamis ad 1 cm. longis 
lanceolato-subulatis rigidis atrobrunneis, caeterum cum rachi squamis 
setaceis atratis plus minus dense vestita. Eachi fere opaca fusco-aut 
olivaceostraminea pinnulis Inceolato-angustatis caudatis, lobis acutis 
ovato-lanceolatis grosse dentatis. Faciebus fere laevibus nec ciliatis. 
Colore sicce griseo-aut atroviridi, textura opaca. ISTervis lateralibus 



1<S(S CIIUIST. 

ad iiiargiiiciii protcnsis, ii('i-\iilis ni^^ris crassis, soliiiiiiiiodo scciis costas 
auastomosantilms, nervulis incliisis clavatis raris aiit millis, })ai'c(' indusio 
hruniico j^cltato. 

LuzoN, Laguna Provinw, Majayjay (Loher) ISill; IJataan Provincc, Laniao 
Rivcr (li)5n Borden, 217, 13!)(i Vopclaiid) ; nortlicrn Luzon { Wdrbiir;/) . MiN- 
DANAO, Todaya, Davao ( 14(iS VopeUtiid) . 

1 liave tlic samc spccics froni Malacca, Jolior, icg. Ridlei) ]0!)7(i; Singaporc, lcg. 
Ilose (]S!)4). 

Aspidium melanorachis \k\k. Journ. Bot. ISSS. Xepltrodiuin. ;51.") Sarawal:, 
Borneo, leg. Hose is very near. 

Ditfcrt squaniis atro])ur|)urcis lincarihus iiaccidis ilc.xuosis, raclii cos- 
tisquc atropurpureis, fronde ainpliore, faciebus dense })ubescentil)us, soris 
inagis numerosis, irrcgidariter sparsis nec stricte biseriatis, minoribus, 
indusio tenui griseo mox evanido, nervi valde anastomosantibus, nervulis 
inclusis multis. 

Diplazium vestitum Prcsl Epinicl. S7, 1849. Ilook. lc. ii. 4G. 

By con)pariso]i witli Hooker's figure of Cuming's specimen from Leyte, I have 
identificd as tliis species tlie plant foiind Ijy Lolicr at Mabacal and Angilog, 
Rizal Provincc, Marcli, 190(i. It is very niucli largcr tlian tlie onc rcprcscntcd 
by Hooker; but all tlie dctails corrcspond pcrfcctl_y, cspccially the axial parts 
covered with scales and furfuraccous down. Tlie lateral nerves and tlie sori 
converge in the sinus between t\\o lobcs, but tliey do not touch before the sinus. 
The stipe, which attains tlie sizc of a finger, is roixgli witli S)nall warty projections. 

Thc same ])lant fio))i Cclclics lcg. Koorders 1098(5. 

■t- di i itiiiguiijh thiij fvom t])e forn) wliich I have identificd in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 
VI. 1900, 1001, witli D. Sniithianum (Bak.) Dieljfby tlie shorter sori, which 
toucl) somewl)ere before the sinus, by tlie rougli scaly racliis ariiied like the cost* 
witli sharp jiricklcs, and by tlie more truncatc lobcs. 1 havc tliis/^from Ceylon, 
lcg. Wall. 38/275, from Cclcljcs, Bojong, leg. Warhiirg 15314, Harusin 108, and 
froni New Guinea, Sattelberg, leg. Weinlimd 1890. 

I iiiust say that thesc two fornis arc exceedingly similar and appcar alniost 
like one specific type iii the wider sense. Bipluzium doUchosorum Copel.' is inter- 
mcdiate betwceii D. vesliliim Prcsl and D. Hmithianuiii : tlic s(ni are tliose of t])e 
foijncr, but tlic i]n])erfect ])ubescent covering and tlie truncatc lobcs are as in tlie 
second. 



, -, ^New Pliil. Ferns, 1. c, 151./" 



THE PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS. 



By H. CiiRiST. 
(Basel, Switzcrland.) 



Some timo ago IMr. Ehury D. McrrUlf Botanist of tlie Bureau of 
Seience, ]\Ianila, sent nie all the Philippine material of the genus 
Dryopieris from tho herharium of that institution, in order to give me an 
opportunitv to prepare a ehissified list of the spocios found in the 
Archipehigo. Tho colleetion contains many of Cuming's plants, and a 
large number of spccimens collected by the American botanists since 
the occupation of tlie Pliilippines by the United States. In additiou 
to the above material I have also received from Dr. E. B. Copeland 
a notaljlo collection, and Mr. Lolier has had the kindness to furnish 
me witli aii additional and very interesting collection, supplementary 
to the one he sent me in 1S9T and which was the basis of my work 
"Filices Insuhirum Pliilippinarum."^ Since the publication of the above 
paper some important works of Dr. CopeJand have notably advanced 
our knowledge of the ferns of the Philippines. In his Polypodiacea' 
of the Philipjnne Islands,- Dr. Copeland admits 60 species of Nephrodium, 
compiling the descriptions of all the species credited to the Philippines, 
even of those spocies of which he had not seen specimens. In my present 
paper I have not attempted to account for all the species of the genus 
that have been credited to the Archipelago by various authors, but 
have considered only those of which specimens are before me. In a 
group so difficult as Dryopteris and so subject to diverse interpretation, 
it appears to me that tlie hitter treatment is the surest, even if com- 
pleteness is sacrificed. 

I have limited Dnjopleris iu tho sense of Christensens ludex Filicum; 
that is, excluding Pleocnemia and Sagenia and treating only Lastrea 
{mchiding PJiegopteris) and Nephrodium propor (including Goniopteris, 
^ Mesochlaena and Meniscium). As the Philippines are particuUirly 
^ rich in speeies and forms of Dryopteris, the task of troating all the 
*"' species was sufficiently arduous. In regard to nomenclature I have 
^^ followed Christensens Index Filicum and accepted tlie generic name 

: "^Bull. Ilcrh. Boiss. 6 (1898) 127-ir)4; 189-210. 

-Govt. Lab. Piibl. 28 (190(5) 18-32. 

189 



190 CHRIST. 

Dryopteris, in spitc of the sacrifice of personal opinions and in spite 
of being obliged to diseard nanies tliat have been in constant use for a 
century and which are known to all botanists. 

JSTowhere else is the tyj)e of Nephrodium witli anastomosing veins so 
diversified as in the Diiiippines. There are in the Pliilippines fornis 
with very narrow pinna3, and sonie special characters are found in the 
species of this region niore often tlian in tliose of other parts of the 
worhl. These characters are: Pinna? attenuated toward their ba.ses, 
tht! lower ones defiexed, tlie pinnae degenerating into auricles at the l)ase 
of the frond^ sometimes abruptly, sometimes gradually. In otlier equa- 
torial regions species with these characters are ratlier rare. In tropical 
America, Dryopteris sagittata (Sw.) is ahnost the only Imown species 
of the group where the frond is abruptly reduced at the base, the lower 
pinnae being represented by auricles, and D. refracta (Fiscli. & Mey.) 
is one of the rare examples of a species with deflexed pinnse. The Ma- 
layan region offers tlie most frequent examples of species presenting 
tlie two last cliaracters, for example D. sagittifoUa (Blmne) of Java, 
but even in tlie Malayan region sucli species do not approacli in number 
tliose of tlie Philippines. 

There is in the Pliilippines a tendency to "insular" reduced types 
wliicli is ratlier interesting. These reduced types elsewliere are rare, 
and abnormaL Tlie irregularity and reduction of the fronds and even 
tlie dimorphism of tlie fertile fronds is normal in Dryopteris canescens 
(Blume) as found in the Pliilippines, and D. glandulosa lias analogous 
tendencies. Tliese variations do not as yet appear to be constant, and 
they offer some subspecies and varieties of doubtful value, wliich are 
discussed later under the two above species. In the Arcliipelago more- 
over are analogous variations in otlier genera, for example tlie singularly 
stunted forms that are grouped under Leptochilus heteroclitus (Presl) 
{Acrostichum fiagelliferum Wall.), and some species of Pteris, sucli as 
P. ensiformis Burm., and P. heteromorpha Fee. In the West Indies, 
Cuba, J amaica, Porto Eico, Santo Domingo, etc, analogous insular f orms 
are foimd in Polystichum, Fadyenia, Sagenia and especially in Dryopteris 
reptans (Gmel.) which tliere offer multiple reduced forms. I am sure 
that the very prolonged isolation of tliese arcliipelagoes plays some role 
in tlie occurrence of tliese variations, althougli it is not possible at present 
to specify just wliat this influence is. 

Tlie wonderful variations of Dryopteris canescens, which are foimd 
in otlier parts of Malaya (Celebes) only as rarities, but which are 
developed in the Philippines into a bewildering series of forms, appear 
to me to tlirow some new light on the "aberrant forms" of the old 
scliool of pteridologists. By the variations of Dryopteris canescens, 
which present an unbroken and insensible transition from a true Neph- 
rodiuiii to a plant entirely achrosticlioid as to tlio sori, tlie affinity of 



PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS. 191 

LeptocliUus. Gymnopteris, Polyhotrya, Egenolfia, Stenosemm, and Cae- 
noptens with Aspidimn, m a broad sense, appears to me to acquire a new 
support; and wliat is more, although perhaps in the cases where it has 
not yet been possible to iind tlie aspidioid type of all acrostichoid plants 
it is probable that the aspidioid type has not been preserved or that it 
has been so modified as to be unrecognizahle. Be that a^ it may 
for Stenosemm one must admit the immediate descent of Pleocnenda 
memhramfoliu {Dictyopteris Chattagramica Clarke) as Beddome has 
asserted.'^ Likewise I now connect my Gymnopteris Bonii ' from Tonkin 
directly with Aspidium repandum Willd. The contention that "Acros- 
tichum" is only "Aspidium" with reduced fertile pinn^, appears to me 
to be better established tb.an ever. Is this a step iu advance in the 
development or a degeneration ? The example of Dryopteris canescens, 
where the mcontestable deformation of the pinna^ both fertile and 
sterile, is accompanied l)y the acrostichoid formation as to the soriferous 
parts, appears to me to point strongly to the latter; that is to say, 
an aberration and weakening of tlie type, wliich one can scarcely call 
only teratological, because the influences that liave caused the cli"anges 
are uuknown. 

OBSERVATIONS. 

1. In my Filices Insularum Philippinarum '' I have noted Aspidiiim 
Fauriei var. elatiits Christ and A. grammitoides. Both belong in Atliy- 
rium, with aspidioid sori, as is the case witli Athyrium o.typhy]1am whieli 
is found in the Philippines with absolutely aspidioid sori. 

2. In his Polypodiaceaj of the Philippine Ishmds," Copeland includes 
Nephrodium asperulum (J. Sm.) Copel. The species was based on No. 
(i3 Cuming, Polypodium asperulum J. Sm., and the specimen in the 
Herbarium of the Bureau of Science is to me Microlepia speluncae 
(Linn.) Moore, with submarginal sori. 

3. Copelnnd' admits Ncphrodium rugulosum (Labill.) Copel., but to 
me the phmt indicated is Hypolepis. Species of llypolepis with the sori 
more or less intramarginal give rise to some doubt as to their proper 
disposition. There is a form in the Philippines which has a rhizome 
often, if not always, creeping, which is generally a good character of true 
Hypolepis and which indicates the relationship of that genus with 
Pteridium. This form was considered by me at first as Dryopteris 
setigera (Blume) 0. Ktz., and later as Aspidium vile Kunze, of Java, 
with which it has a great resemblance. It has been collected on Mount 
App, Mindanao, by Gopeland (No. 1462) October, 1904, and on Mount 



' Suppl. Ferns Brit. Ind. 48, 40. 
*Bun. Herb. Boi.ss. II 4: 610. 
^ Bull. Herh. Boiss. 6 (1898) 19S. 
"Oovt. Lab. Publ. 28 (1905) 25. 
' L. c. 26. 



192 - CHIUST. 

Arayat, Liizon, hy tlic Bolsler (Nos. 7'.), !)<S.) Tlic i^liizonic scciiis to bo 
very slightly crcoping, thc soi'i nrc snl)inarginal at tlu; antcrior Ijase of 
thc lohcs and thc textnrc of thc phnit is rathci- Ihin and not coriaceous 
as in specimens of Aspidium vile from Java lcg. RacihorsJd. After 
examining thc material at prcsent availahle, 1 do not eonsidcr that this 
donhtfid s])ecies can he referred witli ccrtainty to Dryopirris. 

4. Aspidium varium Sw., is to mc a Pohjsiirliuju, and for this rcason 
this Chincsc type, which is also found in northcrn Tjuzon, is not con- 
sidercd in thc following list: 

DRYOPTERIS Adanson. 

I. NEPHRODIUM (inclnding Mcsochlacini, (lonioptcris and Mcniscium). 

1. Dryopteris megaphylla ,(Mett..) C. Clir. Ind. Fil. (100.5) 277. Aspidium 
weiidplniUnin Mett. Ann. Lugd. Bat. 1 (1804) 2.33. Aspidivin peniiigervni Bluine 
Enuni. (1S2S) 1.13. Ncphrodivm pennificrvin P>ed(l. Handh. (1802) 73. 

Haud malc quadrans eum specimine Javanico a Eacihorsl-i lecto et 
detcrminato, conf. Racihorsl'i Pterid. Buitenz. 190, sed planta Mindana- 
ensis gaudet rhizomate erecto, radicihus multis simplicihus et stipitum 
faseiculatorum hasi oriundis suffulto, quum Racihorski plantae Javanicae 
rhizoma repens stipites que rcmotos attrihuat. Beddome rectc monet 
"Caudex erect." 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Todaya (1230 CopcJand) April, 1904; Province 
of Zamboanga, San Ranion (Copclamd) Marcli, 190.5. 
Malaya. 

2. Dryopteris truncata (Poir.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 814. Pohjpo- 
divin Irvneaiuiii Poir. in Lam. Encycl. 5 (1804) 534. 

JNTervis (i utrinque ([uorum 2 ad 3 junctis, lohis rotundatis aut convexe 
truncatis. 

LuzoN, Province of Laguna, Pagsanjan (19951) Copeland) February, 1906; 
Los Banos (Alberto) May, 1905: Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (391 
Topping) May, 1904: Province of Benguet, Baguio (4948 Curran) August, 1900. 
MiNDANAO, Province of Zamboanga, 8an Ramon (1(574 Copcland) Marcli, 1905. 
Basilan (88 DcA^orc d- Hoovcr) April, 1903. 

Malaya. 

3. Dryopteris abrupta (P.Iume) U. Ktze. Rcv. Gen. Pl. 2 (1S91) 812. 
Aspidium ahruptum Blume Enum. (1828) 154. Nephrodium ahrupfuin Hook. Sp. 
Fil. 4 (1802) 77. /. 2-^1. B. 

Nervis utrinque qnorum 4 aut 5 junctis, lobis horizontalitcr aut con- 
cave truncatis, apice denticulatis. 

Mindanao. Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (Copeland) February to 
Marcb, 1905. 
Malaya. 
Scarcely more tban a subspecies of tlie ])receding. 

4. Dryopteris adenophora C. Clir. Ind. Fii. (1905) 251. Nephrodium hirsv- 
tum J. Sm. in Hook. .rourn. Bot. 3 (1841) 412; Hook. Sp. Fil. 4: 70. f. JJ,0, non 
Don, noc P>ory. 



PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS. 193 

iiw^r/''^^/"""''''''^^'^*^^"'^^''""*^*^^"^'^^^^ i^l^Topping) Mav, 1004- (131> 
Octobei, 1904: Province of Zambalos. Mount Pinatubo (Lohcr) Febiuary OOO- 

Pliilippines and Celebes. 

5. Dryopteris ferox (Blume) O. Ktze. Rev. Cen. Pl. 2 ( 1,S!.I, S12 Asnidium 
A^roj- P,iume Enum. (1S2,S) 15.3. ^is/»aiM»» 

„.»tT'p"','''"'VT'r-' ^''' ''""""^^ ■T/o.Vo,;/.,/. .,..,..,.« .J. sm. rol.podium 
aspoun, Roxl,. .n herb. Lmn. 8oc." ./. Hmitk in Hook. .lourn. Bot. 3 (IS41) :V)(;- 
lrov,nce of Benguet, Sablan (0232 Elmer) April, lf)04; Baguio (320 ro;;;.,»^)" 

Augu..t, 1900. MI.NUORO, Baeo River (237 Mcarcgor) May, 1905. MixLxao 
/amboanga (lo.s Co;>./aHrf, 1905; Lake Lanao. Camp Keithley ( 107a Mrs' 
Vlemcns) January, 1900. .> < .a i.i.h. 

Malaya. 

Var. calvescens n. var. 
Piistulis et sotis a.xialibns ferc evanidis. 
^^^MiNUANAO, Provinoe of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1721 Copeland) 1905, alt. 

(J. Dryopteris Todayensis n. .sp. 

Khizomate oblique erecto, supraterraneo, radicoso, paucos (ca. 3) 
stipites emittente, fere nudo, atroljrimneo, digiti erassitie. Stipite crasso 
fere digiti minoris, solido griseo-brunneo niulo aut paucis squamulis 
lanceolatis brunneis parce obsito, 40 cm. longo, fronde 70 cm. et ultra 
longa 20 cm. lata oblongo-acuminata pinnata, versus basin vix attenuata 
sed abrupte secus stipitem utroque latere in 8 ad 10 auriculas breves 
rudimentarias transeunte, rhachi brunneo-grisea puberula, pinnis con- 
fertis sessihbus 40 ad 55 utrinque, basi subcallosis tuncato-cuneatis 
submaequalihus, caudato-acuminatis, 11 cm. longis basi 11 mm. latis usque 
ad mediam partem incisis, ala utrinque 3 mm. lata relicta, lobis confertis 
ca. 45 utrmque laneeolato-acutis valde falcatis 3 mm. longis 2 mm latis 
nervis tenuibus non prominulis 7 ad 8 utrinque, areolam imam costalem' 
formantd)us, secimdis in sinum acutum excurrentibus, caeteris liberis, 
facie mferiore puberula, superiore glabra, exceptis costulis costulisque 
adpresse pihxsis, soris minutis, brunneis, mediis, indusio parvo reniformi 
brunneo integro puberulo. Textura flaccide herl)acea, colore atroviridi. 
Diifert a D. truncata lobis falcatis profundioribus, nervisque pluribus. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao. Todaya, on tlie slopes of Mount Apo at 1 '?00 
m. alt. (1403 Vopchmd) October, 1904. Negros. Gimagaan River (1058 B7n7- 
ford) May, 1900. 

A species of large size, the frond abruptly narrowed at the l,as<. tlie stipe 
with numerous small auriculate ,,i„na., the lobes narrow, the lower surface 
shghtly i.ubescent, the nervules forming one costal areola, the sori very small 
the color a very dark green. A similar plant, but the stipe without auricles' 
is represented by Xo. 007 Vopchnid, from Davao. 



194 OTTRTRT. 

7. Dryopteris Mindanaensis n. sp. 

Aiiipla;, frondc deorsinii iioii attenuata, nndiqne puberiila, iino doiibusvc 
n(irvis junctis, indusio ciliato, ab oiimibus forniis c vicinitate D. parasiticae 
etiani a /K liitipimia (Ilaiicc) niagnitudinc lobis^nic clongatis disting- 
uenda indiisio ciliato. 

llhij^omatc uti vidctur rcpcnte aut valde obli(|uo, foliis romotis ]iaud 
fasciculatis, stipitc 'M) cni. loiigo, rufo-])]iiuibco, ])ennae anscrinae cras- 
sitie, uti tota piantc brevissime ]5uberu]o, sulcato, basi squaniis ovatis 
acuminatis \ cm. iongis 1)runneis opacis vcstito, frondc '70 cm. longa 40 
cm. lata, ovato-acuminata in caudam ]ongam incisam jjrotracta, basi 
liaud aut vix attcnuata, pinnis utrinque ca. 28 infra apicem patcntibus, 
modice api^roximatis, sessilibus, basi liaud attenuatis, 20 cm. longis, 
2.5 cm. iatis caudato-acuminatis, usque ad mediam partem inter margincm 
ct costam incisis, ]obis ca. 45 ad 50 utrinque, pectinato-confertis, subfai- 
catis, o])tusis sed niucronuiatis, 7.5 mm. ]ongis, 4.5 mm. latis, sinu fere 
nullo interjccto, costis nervisque stramineis, dense et a]l)ido-pul)eru]is. 
nervis 10 ad 13 utrintiuc, simplieibus, costalibus aut ctiam secundis 
junctis, soris 5 ad 8 utrinque, 1 mm. latis rotundis dilute brunncis, 
indusio flaccido, grisco, ciliato. Textura lierbacca, eolore laete virente 
opaco. 

MiNDANAo, District of Davao (C07 Copeland) 1904. 

8. Dryopteris invisa (Forst.) 0. Ivtze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 81.3. Poli/- 
podiiim iniisum Forst. Prodr. (1780) 81. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (0573 Elmer) June, 1904. Palawan 
(Paragua) Point Separation (824 Merrill) February, 1903. 

Polynesia. 

A species still niore pubescent than the preceding, and a third or one-half 
smaller, fronds somewhat abrupt below by the pinnae gradually becoming shorter, 
but witliout auricles, the pinn.ne soniewhat distant, narrow, t])e lobes triangular, 
the texture niore coriaceous, the color a light yellowisli green. Nerves forn)ing 
one areola, the sori larger, brownish, the sporangia hairy. I have identified the 
above specimens with this species after the description given by Baker in Synopsis 
Filicum 290 under Nephrodiiim imismn Carruth. Gopeland in his Polypodiacefe 
of tlie Philip))ines, 30, accepts this species, and repeats Baker's description with 
a slight n)odification "sori in rows close to the midribs," while Baker says "sori 
midway between the midrib and edge," the latter being tlie case with our 
s])ecimens. Baker also says "common in tlie Polynesian Islands." I have but 
one specimen from the Solomon Islands leg. Betche, w])ich agrees weil witii t])e 
description, but in wl)icl) t])e base of the frond is abrupt, not narrowed, and witli 
one auricie on tlie stipe. A critical species. 

9. Dryopteris cucullata (Biume) Aspidium cucullatum Blume Enum. (1828) 
1-51. Dryopteris unita O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. P]. 2 (1891) 811. 

LuzoN, witiiout locality (254 Cuming) ''Ncphrodium canesoens Presi — Aspi- 
dium canescens WalL" J. Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 411. Province of 
lliza] (2090 Ahern's collector) January to Marcii, 1905: Province of Benguet, 
Twin Peaks (0408 Klmer) June, 1904: Province of Nueva Ecija, Canangiang 
(284 Merrill) May, 1902: Province of Tayabas, Atimonan (002 Whitford) Au- 
gust, 1904. Cebu (28, 29 Barrow) May, 1904. Mindanao, Province of Zam- 



PHILIPPIXE SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS. 195 

boanga, (1575, 1575a, 1575b Copeland) 1905; District of Davao (390 Copeland) 
Marcli, 1904; Santa Criiz (218 DeVore d Hoover) April, 1903; Mount Apo (378 
DeVore tC- Hoaver) May, 1903. 

Malayan region to the Sej^clielles. 

It is impossible for nie to follow Christensen's Index in treating tliis species 
as D. uiiila and renewing tlie confusion that lias exsisted for a long tiine regarding 
yephrodiiim niritum R. Br. ( = Dri/opteris gongylodes) . Blume's name is liere 
accepted for the species. There is a limit even to the virtues of priority ! 

Var. mucronata (J. Sm.) Nephrodium mucronatum .1. Sni. in Hook. Journ. 
Bot. 3 (1841) 412. 

Inter typuni et N. caUosvm (Bl.) intenneclia. i\'. cucidlato typico 
major, pinnis 2 cm. et nltra latis, nervis utrinqne plus minus 12, quorum 
6 junctis, soris minutis submarginalibus, pinnis infimis versus basin 
angustatis, insertione pinnarum callosa, omnio puberula. K. calJosum 
magnitudine et glabritie differt. 

LuzoN, without locality (182 Cuming nec 2G8). Mindanao. Lake Lanao, 
Camp Keitldcy (107 Mrs. Clemens) January, 1900. 

10. Dryopteris arida (Don) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 812. Aspidium 
aridum Don Prodr. Fl. Xepal. (1825) 4. 

Luzox, Province of Nueva Ecija, Carranglang (283 Merrill) May, 1902: 
Province of Benguet, Trinidad (212 Topping) .January, 1903. Mindoro, Baco 
(879 Merrill) April, 1903. Mindanao, District of Davao, Davao (447,326 
Copeland) March, 1904: Province of Zamboanga (1576 Copeland) 1905: Lake 
Lanao, Camp Keithley (Mrs. Clemens) Januaiy, 1906. 

No. 279 Cuming "Nephrodium mucronatum J. Sm." appears to differ from this 
species in its pinnse being niore strongly hastate at the base and in being more 
strongly villous. Dryopteris arida of the Philippines is usually more strongly 
villous and the pinnae are shorter and more distant than in the form found in 
India (Dehra Dun, leg. Blanford) . 

Malaya. 

11. Dryopteris gongyloides (Schkuhr) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 812. 
Aspidium Schkuhr Krypt. 289. Nephrodium unitum R. Br. 

LuzoN, without locality (259 Cuming) ''Nephrodium unitum R. Br." J. Sm. 
in Hook. .Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 411: Province of Cagayan (133bis Bolster) July, 
1905: Province of Nueva Ecija, Carranglang (283 Merrill) May, 1902: Province 
of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (1239 Borden) .June, 1904. Mindanao, Province of 
Zamboanga, San Ramon (Copeland) March, 1905. 

Tropics of both hemispheres, as far north as Algefia. 

12. Dryopteris hispidula (Dcne.) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 813. 
Aspidium hispidulum Dcne. Nouv Ann. ]\Ivis. 3: 346. 

LuzoN, without locality (268 Cuming nec 182), "Nephrodium mucronatum 
J. Sm." in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 412. 

Cum planta Borneensi a cl. Nietvenhuis lecta exacte convenit, sed 
minus cum speciminibus aliter collectis. 

A specinien from Baguio, Province of Benguet, LrzoN (5108 Curran) August, 
1906, appears to me to be intermediate between Drijopteris hasiJaris and D. 
hispidtila. 

Borneo and the Philippines; its other distribution in Malaya imcertain. 



H)0 CIIRTST. 

l;{. Dryopteris basilaris (IMcsl) ('. Clir. liid. Kil. (100.'») 2^)4. Nephrodium 
ba.iiUirc Presl Kpiiii. l?ot. (184») 2r)H, iioiiicn. Nephrodium philippinense IJak. 
Aiiii. Bot. 5 (ISi)l) :m. 

Tliis specios is one of tlio iiiost distinct, niost imjiortant and iiiost widcly 
distrilmtcd of the genus in tlic Philippines, and is cliaracterizcd hy Btikcr as 
follows:' 

"Kootstock and complctc stipe not scen. Frond ohlonfj-lanccolate. hipinnatifid. 
2-3 ft. lonf);, 1-H ft. hroad, inodcratdy firni, jrlahrons. racliis nakcd. IMnnu' 
lanceolate, aciiniinate, S-i) in. l(>n<jr. i in. hroad, cnt down lcss than lialf way to 
tlic rachis into ohlong erccto-patcnt lohes J in. hroad, lower pinnse not dwarfcd, 
veins siniplc, 8-0 jn<iatc. Sori medial, indnsium firm, filahrous, pcrsistent. 
Near arhusciila, hut lower pinna^ not gradually dwarfcd." 

It was on specimens Nos. 10, 84 and 3.38 Cuinitig that Balccr hascd Iiis 
imperfcct description, and of tlicse I Iiave hcfore me a specimen of tlie second 
numhcr. Bascd oii tliis nuiiihcr, and the ahundant matcrial collected hy tlie 
Amcrican hotanists in tlic riiilippincs, the followinj^- detaiicd dcscription is given: 

Hliizoniato obliqno snljerecto valde radicoso crasso, foliis snbfascicnlatis 
(4 ant 5) stipite basi snlcato-dilatato, sqnaniis snljnlatis nsqne ad 2 cm. 
longis brnnneis e basi lanceolata filiformi-elongatis vestito, rnfostramineo, 
glabro incente, tereti, basi pennae cygni crassitie, -to cm. longo, fronde 
nsque ad 65 cm. longa, 20 cm. lata late ovata acnminata, pinnata, basi 
al)rnpte terminata, pinnis infimis band aliljreviatis, sed stipite ntrinque 
8 ant 10 anricnlis obtnsis rndimentariis remotis instrncto, pinnis alternis 
erecto-patentibns numerosis sessililjus aut l)revissime petiolatis, pinna 
terniinali saepius valde elongata ant basi bifida, pinnis lateralibns approxi- 
matis, ca. 35 utrinque, 1-t cm. longis, 1 cm. latis candato-acuminatis lan- 
ceolato-linearibus, basi antiore recte tmncata, posteriore semicordata, 
marginibns lobatis usquo ad tortiam partem, loViis decnmbontibns 3 mm. 
longis oblongis subobtusis, costis pallidis manifostis, nervis 5 ad 8 utrin- 
que, infimis aream unam formantibus, soris minntis mediis 5 ntrinque, 
indusio griseo persistente. Colore brunneo-viridi, textura subcoriacea 
rigidiuscnla, planta glabra. 

LUZON, without locality (84 Vuming) "Nephrodium caudiculatum Presl" J. 
Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 411: Province of Rizal, Antipolo {Ouerrero) 
June, 1003: Province of Cagayan (103, 175 Bolstcr) August, lOOo: Province of 
Bataan, Mount Mariveles (407 Topping) May, 1004; ((iGGG Elmcr) Noveniher, 
1904; (224, 225 Copeland) Fehruary, 1004; (371, 108 Whitford) June, 1004; 
(2554 Mcrrill) June. 1003: Province of Tayabas, Sampaloc (12759 Warburg) : 
Province of Benguet. Baguio (4015, 4040 Curran) Auf-ust, lOOG: Province of 
Cavite, Mcndez Nunez (1304 Mangiibat) August, 1000: Province of Isahela, 
Malunu (^Varburg). Mindanao, Davao (037 Copcland) March, 1904: Province 
of Zamboanga ( 1685 Cope/oHcZ) . 

Widely distrihuted in the Philippines ; endemic. 

14. Dryopteris Luzonica n. sp. 

A species, resemhling tlie preceding, and likc it widely distributed in Luzon, 
hut well eharacterizcd hy its vcry thin texturc, hriglit green color, its pinna; 
horizontal, in ratlier reinote pairs and dilated at tlie hase, tlie lohes ohtuse. 



1'HILII'I'IXH SPKCIKS OF HRYOPTEIUS. H)? 

often truncato, tlie pinna' stronnly clongated into a filiform apcx, the apex of tlic 
frond ratlicr pinnatitid and tcrniinatcd by one pinna, the stipe having generally 
one or two pairs of auriclcs. I shall content ni.ysclf with indicating liere the 
characters by which it differs froni Dri/optcris hasihiris: 

Basi stipitis .squamis dcstitutis aut miuutis brcvil)us, stipite gracili 
secl pinnis infiuiis abbrcviatis, ct stipite auricula una, rarius pluribus 
instructa, flavostrauiinco, froude acuminato apicc })innatifida miuus 
abrupte terminata pinuis rcmotioribus inferioribus mediisque horizonta- 
libus, oppositis, l)asi antice et postice dilatatis quasi utriuque stipulatis, 
lobis brovioribus apice truucato-obtusis sive abruptis et denticulatis, tex- 
tura diaphano-tcnui, ucrvis plcrumque 5, soris ochraceis, iudusio teuuis- 
simo mox evauido, colore diluto smaragdiuo. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Bosoboso ( 10S3 A'(iiiios) July, 1!)0(); (8!) Foxworthy) 
January, 1900; Antipolo {(lucrrcro) Junc, 1003 ; (Lohcr) INIarch, 1000, March, 
1893: Province of Bataan, Mount Marivclcs (1239 Bordcn) Jiuie, 1!)04: Province 
of Cavite, Mendez Nuilez (1289, 1302 Manguhat) August, 1906: Province of 
Laguna, Los Bafios (Lohcr) January, 190(i; Mount Maciuiling (Lohcr) January, 
1900; Pagsanjan ( 1095a Copcland) February, 1900; (514 Topiniuj) 1904: Prov- 
ince of Batangas, Mount Malarayat (2002 Copcland) Fcbruary, 1900: Province 
of Cagayan (120 Bolster) July, 1905: Manila (Rothdauscher) 1897 in Herb. 
Monac: Province of IsabeUi, Malunu (11577 Warhiirg). 

Var. puberula n. var. 

Ehachi costis ot ncrvis puberulis. 

LuzoN, Province of Cagayan, Tabug (175 Bolster) August, 1!)05. 

Var. polyotis n. var. 

Pinnis hitioribus, basi Ki mm., brcvius acumiuatis, et stipite usque ad 
basin aiiriculis uumerosis (ca. '20 utriuque) vestitis. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Montalban (5004 Mcrrill) March, 190(i. Mindanao, 
Province of Zaniboanga, San Ranion (1571 Copeland) Deceniber, 1!)04. 

15. Dryopteris parasitica (Linn.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1S9I) 811. 
Polypodium para^iticuin Linn. Sj). Pl. (1753) 1090. 

LuzoN, without locality (83 Cuiiiing) "Xcplirodiuin inollc R. Br." J. Sni. in 
Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 412. Province of Rizal, Bosobo.so (1084 Rainos) 
July, 1900: Province of Tayabas, Malicboi (Riicltic) JNIay, 1903; Atinionan 
(8 Crcgory) August, 1904: Province of Laguna, Pagsanjan, (1995 Copeland) 
February, 1900. Mindanao, Provincc of Zaniboanga (1005 Copclaiid) 1905: 
District of Davao (007 Copcland) Mareh, 1904. Palawan (Paiagua) Ewiig 
River (720 Mcrrill) February, 1903. 

Tropics of both hemisphercs. 

Var. falcatula n. var. 

Differt a typo piunis iuforioribus oppositis, refractis, basi antice sti- 
puhttis, segmentisque profundius iucisis falcatis acutioribus, aliter typo 
conformis. Au Nephrodiiim inolliiisculum Walh Cat. ? 

Mindanao, Province of Zamboanga (1G77 Copelmid) 1905. 



198 ciiuisT. 

10. Dryopteris procurrens (Mctt.) O. Kt/c. Rev. ({cii. Pl. 2 (18!)1) 81:5. 
Aspidium procurrens Mett. Anii. Jjiisd. Bat. 1 : 231. 

LuzoN, Province of Laftuna, ragsanjan (1992 Cupcland) Fchruary, 1903: 
Province of Rizal, liosohoso (1094 Raitios) July, 1900: Province of Bataan, 
Mount Mariveles (220, 1389 Copeland) Fehruary, August, 1904. Culion (589 
Merrill) December, 1902. Mindanao, Province of Zamhoanga (lG93a Copelund) . 

Malaya. 

From repeated examinations of material from tlie Philippines I have not heen 
ahle to determine with certainty the form descrihed by Hookcr, Synopsis 292, as 
Nephrodium latipimut; as tliat species is represented by specimens from Hongkong 
and Tonkin (leg. Cadiere) . 

17. Dryopteris heterocarpa (Blume) 0. Kuntze Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 813. 
Polypodium heterocarjmm Blume Eiuim. (1828) l.^iS. 

LuzoN, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling (2027 Copelund) Marcli, 1900. 
Sunda Islands. 

18. Dryopteris canescens (Blume) C. Chr. Ind. (1905) 256. Polypodium 
canescens Blume Envim. (1828) 158. Gymnogramm^ cancsccns Blume Fil. Jav. 
93. t. 40- Aspidiu7ii canescens Christ. Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitenz. 15^: 130. 

The Philippines share with Celebes a plurality of forms of this species, interest- 
ing because of the numerous more or less "insular" forms into which it is 
divided. I refer the reader to what I have said regarding it in Ann. Jard. Bot. 
Buitenzorg 1. c, wliere I have showTi its affinity to the group containing P. 
parasitica of which it appears to be a weakly derived species, weakly derived 
because of its generally reduced dimensions, the indusium frequently lacking, 
and its sori irregular, but above all in the variation in the form of the fronds 
which present all forms of pinnse from those linear and clongated to those 
variously cut, lobed and dilated in a most bizarre manner, and finally in the 
dimorphism and narrowness of the fertile fronds Avhich have niuch elongated 
stipes and the pinnse so narrowed that the sori lose their distinctness and form 
a mass which entirely covers the narrow fertile pinnse, in this latter respect 
resembling those of Egenolfia appendiculata. 

In Celebes I have distinguished three forms — nephrodiformis, which is scarcely 
dimorphous; gymnogrummoides, with the fertile fronds somewhat reduced; and 
acrostichoides with the fertile pinnae narrowly linear. For the species as it 
occurs in the Philippines, this distinction does not suffice, and it is necessary to 
distinguish a large number of forms, some of wliich have acquired the value of 
subspecies, or perhaps in some cases, of species. These forms I characterize as 
follows : 

Var. lobatum n. var. 

Statura minore, stipite longiore (20 cm., frondis 20 cm.) pinnis niinus 
numerosis, latioribus, lobis latioribus, paucioribus, profundioribus nervis 
flexuosis, interdum irregularibus, aream unam costalem forinanti])us, 
pubescentia sensiore grisea imprimis costas nervosque tegente, et soris 
indusiis carentibus, saepe irregulariter elongatis. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Mabacal (Loher) March, 1906: Province of Ben- 
guet, Baguio (1866 Cojicland) November, 1905. 

Java, Celebes. 

This variety more or less resembles the large form figured by Blume and 
approaches a small D. parasitica, but the stipe is relatively longer, 20 cm., the 
frond 20 cm., the pinnse less numerous, longer, the lobes longer and more numerous 
and more deeply divided, the nerves very undulating, forming one costal areola, 
pubescent. 



PHILIPriNH SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS. 199 

Vcar. degener n. var. 

Ehizomate elongato subrepente, pinnis ovatis saepe obovatis basi 
attenuatis, obtusissimis, obtuse crcnato-lobatis, apice frondis elongato 
lato obtuse lobato, pinnis sterilibus brevius (G cm.) fertilibus saepe longius 
(usque ad 35 cm.) stipitatis, pinnis fertilibus remotis, soris irregulariter 
sparsis plus minus rotundis. Tota planta a 20 cm. us^jue ad 43 cm. 
alta, textura crassiuscula, colore ol)scure fere atroviridi, pubescentia 
imprimis rhacheos densa, strigosa, brunnea. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Angilog (Lohcr) February, lOOG, tlie larger form; 
Montalban (Lohcr) Marcli, 1906, the smaller forni. 

This is an accentuated variation of the normal form, the length of the nierely 
lobed apex and the pinnse, scarcely coarsely crenate, giving the plant a singular 
aspect. 

Var. subsimplicifolia n. var. 

Snialler, distinguished from the preceding by its one distinct terminal elongated 
[)inna, nearly entire, and in the lateral pinnse being very slightly developed and 
auricle-like. 

LuzoN, Province of Tayabas (Infanta) (784 Whitford) September, 1904. 

19. Dryopteris diversiloba (Presl) n. subsp. Nephrodium diversilobum Presl 
Epim. (1849) 47; Mett. Aspid. 100. Goniopteris asymmctrica Fee Gen. 253. 

Rhizomate debili, elongato, plus minus repente, stipitibus plus minus 
fasciculatis fere caespitosis aut subsolitariis, debilibus flexousis 8 cm. 
longis, fronde oblonga 10 cm. longa, 7 cm. lata, pinnata, pinnis subpe- 
tiolatis rhombeis aut lata ovatis obtusis aut in apicem lanceohitum 
prolongatis 5 usque ad 7 utrinquc 4 cm. longis, 3.5 cm. latis basi 
saepe attenuatis sive hastulatis aut subcordiformibus, crenatis, apice 
lobatis lobis valde irregularibus, brevibus et usque ad 3 aut 3 cm. longis, 
lanceolato-obtusis 3.5 mm. kitis mixtis. Apice frondis saepe lato, valde 
elongato, lobato; pinnis fertilibus vix contractis, saepe apice solummodo 
sorifero, soris minutis exindusiatis numerosis irregulariter sparsis rariter 
seriatis saepe elongatis. Tota planta griseo pubescente, textura herbacea, 
colore dilute viridi-griseo. 

LuzoN, Province of Nueva Viscaya, Quiangan ( l(i2 Mcrrill) June, 1902: 
Province of Rizal, Mabacal (Loher) March, 1906; northern Luzon (11611 War- 
burg) 1888. Negros, Gimagaan River (83 Gopeland) 1904. Mindanao, Province 
of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1547, 1774, 1754 Gopeland) November, 1904, April, 
May, 1905: Province of Misamis, Mount Malindang (4()1.'?, 4710 Mearns tC- 
Hutchinson) May, 1906: District of Davao (698 Gopeland) March, 1904: 
Province of Surigao (252 Bolster) April, 1906. 

Apparently common and widely distributed in the Pliilippincs; endemic. 

This is a form of the D. omwscens group, but so accentuated, and at tlie sanie 
time so widely distributed (it should be one of tlie most common ferns in the 
Archipelago), that it should be recognized as a subspecies. A small plant, almost 
turf forming with elongated, weak and often running rhizomes, the fronds not, 
or but littlc dimorphous, the pinnse few, short, broad, nearly square and very 
irregularly lobed, the lobes sometimes short and obtuse, sometimes greatly 
elongated. The specimens witli the elongated pointed pinnte have the appearance 



200 ('.ilKlST. 

of ii siilliciciitly (lisliiict. spccics, hiit oftcii tlic liiiiii mihI sliort |)iim;c arc frmiid oii 
tlu! sanu! plant. Tlic froiui is oftcn tcniiinatcd by a sin<;lc siniplc |)iiiiia, Imt sonie- 
tinu's it is pinnatifid. Tlie pinna- aro slij^iitiy petioled, soniewliat iiastate and 
slif^litly cordate at tlie base, sli<>litiy lohed toward tlie base, but nearly always 
witli soine strongly elongatcd and unequal lobes toward tlie apex wliicli is 
ahruptly truncate. Tlie stipe is ahvays slender and ficxuous, about 8 cin. long, 
tlie frond about 10 cni. long, the lateral pinna' 5 to 7 on cacli side, 4 cni. long, 
2.5 cm. wide, tlie terminal one 5 to 10 cni. long. Tlie sori are sniall, very 
irregular, sometimes few, sometimes very numerous often occupying oiily tlie 
terniinal part of tlie frond. 

Var. acrostichoides (J. iSm.) Ncphrodium aerosticlioidcs J. 8m. in Tlook. 
Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 411; Christ Ann. Jard. Bot. Buitcnz. 15' (1898) 130. 

The sterile frond is more or less that of D. divcrsiloha, but the fcrtile frond 
is very long stipitate and tlie pinnie are strongly reduced in width, approacliing 
those of Gymnoptcris and Eycnolfia. Two subvarieties are distinguisliable : 

Subvar. rhombea, n. suljvar. 

Frondis fortilis stipito debili floxiioso valde elongato, lamina 7 cin. 
longa, pinnis 5 utrinqiie, apice frondis elongato lobato acuminato, pinnis 
rhomboideo-lanceolatis usqne ad linoaribus, subpotiolatis, l^asi truncatis, 
obtusis, cronulatis, 8-4 mm. latis, soris confortis aut seriatis aut omnio 
confluentibus, aroola una. 

Sterile pinnae with the form of tliose of D. divcrsiloha, the frond with the 
stipe 12 cm. long, the fertile frond, including the stipe 25 cm. long, tlie stip? 
being about 18 cm. long. 

LuzoN, without locality (14!) Cuming) ; Province of Rizal, Bosoboso (1084 
Ramos) July, 1900: Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (3130 Mcrrill) Oc- 
tober, 1903; (Copcland) August, 1904; (0153 Lcihcry) July, 1904: Province of 
Tayabas (Infanta) (784 Whitford) September, 1904. Mindanao, District of 
Davao (503 Copcland) March, 1904. 

Philippines and Celebes. 

Subvar. lanceola n. subvar. 

Ditfert a praecedente piimis sterilibus lanceobitis margino fere integris 
apice obtusis aut acutiusctdis, apice frondis valde elongato fere caudato. 
areola ima huic inde dual)us. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (250 Copcland) January, 1904: 
Proviiice of Rizal (140 Foxivorlhy) Janiuiry, 190(). Negros, Gimagaan River 
(1600 Whitford) May, 1900. Minuanao, Province of Zamboanga {Copcland) 
1905. 

A specimen from San Kamon {(^opcland) Aj^ril, 1905, olfcrs tlie maximum 
reduction, tlie fertile pinna^ being reduced to a width of 2 nnu., and the sori 
accordingly having the appearance of a string of beads as is tlie case in spccimens 
froin Celebes leg. Sarasin. 

20. Dryopteris acromanes n. sp. 

Rhizomato brevi crasso radicoso, foliis fasciculatis, stipite rufo-aut 
plumbeo-stramineo, tenui, 15 ad 30 cni. longo, fere nudo, frondo oblongo- 
acuminata, 17 cm. longa, !) cm. lata, i^innata, pinnis ca. 7 utrinque 
infra apicemo longatum lobatum, petiolulatis, basi hita truncata sod 



PHILirriNE SPECIES OF I)IIY()I'TERIS. 201 

pinnis infimis basi atteniiatis et defloxis, haud abbreviatis, pinnis obovatis 
sive rhonibeo-elongatis 4.5 cm. longis, 3 cni. hitis vorsus apicem latissimis 
ad mediam laminam sive ultra incisis lobis ovatis rotundato-obtusis 3 
cm. latis ca. 8 utrinque, versus apiceni pinnao reponte olongatis, fronde 
fertile conformi, nervis ca. 8 utrinque aream unam costalom formanti])us, 
soris magnis brunneis rotundis ultra 1 mm. hitis, in lobis/ submarginalibus 
(lamina media soris destituta) brunnois exindusiatis. Faciebus tcnuis- 
sime puberulis, textura lierbacoa, colore obscure viridi. 

LuzON, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Loher) April, 1906: Provincc 
of Rizal, Ampalit (Loher) April, 1906. 

No. 51 Cuming "Polnfpodium adfinc Reinw." in Herb. Bureau of Science, 
approaches Loher's speeimens eited above, except that the sori are not confined 
entirely to the lobes and are less marginal. 

In many respects similar to U. canescens var. lobatum, but tlie accrescence of 
tlie pinnse toward the apex and the increasing length of thc lobes toward the 
tips of the pinnse is more accentuated. The sori are large, marginal, bordering 
tlie lobes in a single series and tlie plant has not the harshness and grayish color 
that distinguishes D. canescens, so that the present form can liardly be referred 
to the preceding as a subspecies. 

21. Dryopteris xiphioides n. sp. 

Rhizomate obliquo repente, stipitibus dobilibus valde approximatis 
numerosis aequilongis 30 cm. longis rufostramineis, fronde pinnata 20 
cm. longa 11 cm. lata, late ovato-elongata, ad basin vix attenuata, pinna 
terminali 10 cm. longa basi aut libera aut pinnis lateralibus valde 
abbreviatis vicina sive connata, 13 mm. lata acuminata lanceolata cronata, 
pinnis latoralibus 4 aut 5 similibus sod liaud ultra 7 cm. longis, norvis 3, 
rarius 4 omnibus junctis, soris paucis minutis exindusiatis, tota planta 
parce griseo pubescente, textura horbacea, colore griseo-viridi. 

MiNDANAO, Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (Copeland, s. n.) April, 1903. 
alt. 800 m. 

A species of the D. canescens gi'oup, remarkable by its very elongated falcate 
pinnae which are not reduced toward the base of tho frond and but slightly lobed. 

22. Dryopteris Merrillii n. sp. 

Rhizomate erocto radicoso crasso, foliis fasciculatis numerosis, stipite 
rufostramineo floxuosa vix pennae corvinae crassitie basi squamulis mini- 
mis ruguloso aliter nudo (rachi facieque frondis parce puberulis) 18 ad 
20 cm. longo, fronde ovato-oblonga acuminata, 20 ad 29 cm. longa, 12 
cm. lata, apico elongato lobato, pinnata, pinnis confertis patontibus 
infimis interdum reductis et deflexis, egregie petiolulatis, falcato-lanceo- 
latis, acutis, 6 cm. longis, 12 mm. latis, basi verticaliter truncata egregie 
hastata, antice plus minus aucta, pinnis dentato-serratis dentibus decum- 
l)entibus, nervis goniopteridis, pinnatis inter costam marginemque areas 
4 ad 5 formantibus quaque area nervulum liberum porrectum includente. 
Fronde fertili longius stipitata, pinnis angustioribus magis remotis. 
Adsunt pinnae fertiles 6 mm. 5 mm. et 2 mm. latae! Soris confortis 

54744 4 



202 CHKIST. 

4 ad T) scriHtis aut (■onlliiciitihus luiniiiiis hruiiiicis rotiindis cxiiHlusiatis. 
Tcxtura licrbacea, colorc lactc vircntc. 

l*Ai,AWAN (742, Sfi2 Foxiporthij) Maroli, April. l!)0(i. Mindanao, I'rc)viiice 
of Snrifiao, iSurigao (2() liolstcr) Marcli, lOOd, ilu' latter very siiiall, ahoiit 2-{ 
fiii. liifjli, reseiiibliiiff a s|)(>pinieii froin Ikinieo !('<;■. liidlcy, 1!)01. 

Tliis presents tlie appearance of a well-estahlislied species. It is larn-e, fascic- 
ulate, with a definitely established (liinor])liisin, and is r(!adily recof^niizable by 
its numerous pectinate lanceolate pinn«, stipitate aiul iiianifestly hastate at 
tlie base. tlie nerves fonniiiff several areola'. lii soiiie resjiects it resembles 
Egcnolfia appcndiculata and might be niistaken for tliat species e.\cept that thc 
bases of tlie jiinnae are etiual. 

23. Dryopteris Philippina (Presl) C. Chr. Iiid. Fil. (100,5) 2S4. rhysc,- 
matium philippinum Presl Epim. (1840) 34. Lastrca cxi(iua J. Siii. in Hook. 
Journ. Pot. 3 (1841) 412. 

LuzoN, without locality (251, 272 Guming) : Province of Rizal, iMontalban 
(Lohcr) March, 1900. Mindanao, Province of Zamboaiiga, San Ramon (1705 
Copeland) 1905: Provinee of Surigao (307, 327 Bolster) May, June, 1900. 

This is a reduced forin of D. MerriUii with obtuse piniiif, inore simple veiiation 
and the pinnae auriculate only anteriorly. 

24. Dryopteris microloncha n. sp. 

Nana, rhizomate crasso obliquo atrol)ninneo radieoso, foliis nunierosis 
fasciciilatis, stipite raris squamulis brunneis sparso rufostramineo 2 ad 
3 cm. longo tenui, rhachi straminea parce furfuracea, planta aliter nuda, 
fronde oblonga 16 ad 24 cm. longa, 4 ad 6 cm. lata aeuminata et in 
longam cuspidem lol^atam excurrentem versus basin sensim auriculis 
obtusis rotundatis, demum 5 aut 3 mm. longis et latis decrescente, pinnis 
ca. 13 utrinque, mediis 3 cm. longis, 0.5 cm. latis sessilibus e basi hastu- 
lata sive utrinque sed antice magis auriculata sensim acuminatis, vix ad 
tertiam laminae partem incisis, ]ol)ulis truncatis, nervis in lobulis parce 
l^innatis, infimis irregulariter junctis, soris numerosis minutis brunneis 
irregulariter triseriatis, undusio atrobrunneo orbiculari, persistente. 

Leyte (317 Cuming) "Nephrodiurn caudiculatum Presl" J. Sni. in Hook. 
Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 411. Luzon, Province of Rizal (54 Fomiiorthy) January, 
1906; Morong (1381 Ramos) August, 1900: Province of Cavite (1304 Mangubat) 
August, 1906. 

A small plant re.seinbling D. Amboinensis (Willd. Sp. Pl. 5: 228, Aspidium) , 
but even smaller than that species, with numerous obtuse auricles on the stipe, 
narrow pinnse which are scarcely incised, and more numerous sori. 

25. Dryopteris polycarpa (Blunie) Aspidium, polycarpum Blume Enum. 
(1828) 150. MesochJacna poJycarpa Bedd. Ferns Brit. Ind. Suppl. 13. 

Samar (327 ? Cuming) 1836-40. The interrogation point concerns only the 
number in Cuming's series, and not the plant itself, the identity of wliich is 
incontestable. 

1 do not consider tliat the elongated sori and their arrangement in horizontal 
lines merits the generic separation of this form, as in all other respects it is a 
true Nephrodium. 

Malaya. 



PHILIPPINK SPECIES OF DUYUITEKIS. 203 

2C}. Dryopteris chamaeotaria ii. subsp. 

Rhizoniate subrepGnte, stipitibus ap})r().\imatis, ((■iniibus, flexuosis, 10 
ad 13 cm. longis, parce puberulis et squamis pallide fuscis subulatis 
sparsis, rufostramineis, fronde ovata 13 cm. longa 7 cm. lata, magna 
pinna libera ovato-acuminata basi gi-osse lobata (5 cm. longa 3 cm. lata 
terminata, 2 vel 3 pinnis lateralibus utrinque, alternis, pctiolulatis, su- 
I)remis adnatis, similibus sive valde reductis ovato- aut rhoml)eo-obtusis, 
nervis pinnatis, 4 areolas inter costani marginemque formantibus, soris 
fere 1 mm. latis rotundis, usque ad 5 pro lol)o utroque costulae laterc, 
uti videter exindusiatis, rhachibus faciebusque minute ])uberulis, textura 
herbacea, colorc laete virente. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Lamao River, Mount Mariveles (1369 Whitford) 
September, 1905; (387 Toppvng) May. 1904; (0970 Elmcr) November, 1904. 

A small deformed plant connected with tlie type of D. Otaria, analogous to 
the relationship between D. diversiloba and Z). canescens, an insular reduced 
forni with feeble characters. 

27. Dryopteris Otaria (Kunze) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 813. Aspid- 
ium Otaria Kunze; Mett Aspid. 34. n. 73. 

Palawan (764 Merrill) February, 1903. 

Rare, but distributed across the Malayan region. 

28. Dryopteris Ramosii n. sp. 

Habitu cum Meniscio triphyUo v. elato valdc conveniens, pinuis \'al(le 
remotis, paucis, fere integris, caudatis, gemmaque minuta axillari pecu- 
liaris. Planta debilis, textura tenui. 

Rhizomate breviter repente crasso radicoso brunnco, foliis paucis aj)- 
proximatis, stipite flexuoso basi incrassato squamulis paucis hrevibus 
sparso rufo-stramineo, ad basin pennae anserinae, porro vix corvinae cras- 
sitie, 35 usque ad 60 cm. longa, frondem multum superante; tota planta 
nuda; fronde 20 ad 35 cm. longa, oblonga, pinnata, pinnis valde remotis, 
5 cm. distantibus, alternis, paucis, 1 ad 4 utrinque cum pinna terminali 
longe petiolata, pinnis erecto patentibus basi cuneatis, fere sessilibus, 
ovato-oblongis 12 ad 15 cm. longis, 3 cm. latis, longe et abrupte caudato 
acuminatis, margine subintegris aut repando-cimeatis, in axilla rhachiali 
saepe genima rotunda minima praeditis, costulis manifestis sed tenuibus 
a costa ad marginem protensis 6 mm. separatis, nervis ca. 8 ad 10 utrinque, 
omnibus more Meniscii junctis et nervulos intermedios longitudinaliter 
Junctos emittentibus, soris minutis, brunneis, rotundis, 7 aut 8 utroque 
costulae latere, costulae approximatis, indusio nullo. Textura herbacea 
aut papyracea, colore obscure viridi, subtus pallidiore. D. otaria longe 
recedit pinnis lobato-serratis, indusio etc : 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal (1792 Ramos) January, 1907. Mindoro, Mount 
Halcon (6093 MerriU) November, 1906. 



204 ciiuisT. 

20. Dryopteris pteroides (lletz.) O. Ktzo. Rev. (!cn. Pl. 2 (18!)!) 813. 
foli/podnoit plvroidcs Kctz. Ohs. 6: .30. 

MmnANAO (203 Vuminy) ^' N ephrodium Cumingii J. Siii." iii Hook. .Touni. Bot. 
3 (184]) 411: i^ake Lanao (254 Mrs. Clemens) February, 10()(i; Provincc of 
Zainboanga (l(i04 Gopcland) 1005; District of Davao (036 <!opclutid) Marcli, 
1004. Bai.aiuc (420 MdiKjuhdl) : Mindoro, Calapan (084 Mcrrill) A])ril. 1003. 
CULION (487, .504 Mcrrill) Dcccmber, 1902. LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Montalban 
(Loher) Marcb, 1000: Province of Pampanga, Mount Arayat (54 Bo/sier) Mareh, 
1905. Palawan (271 Bermejos) December, 1905. 

Throughout the Malayan region. 

30. Dryopteris extensa (Blume) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 812. 
Aspidium extcnsuni Blume Enum. (1828) 156. 

Balabac (415 Mangubat) April, 1905. No. 391 Cuming, distributed in 
Cuming's Philippine series, was from Malacca, fide J. Sm., Hook. Journ. Bot. 
3 (1841) 411, sub Nephrodium cumiiigii J. Sm. It is referable to Dryopteris 
extensa. 

Throughout the Malayan region. 

31. Dryopteris Bordenii n. sp. 

Ehizomate elongato obliquo crasso, radicoso, squamulis minutis lanceo- 
latis crispis dilute brunneis sparso, foliis paucis subfasciculatis, stipite 
firmo usque ad 30 cm. longo, saepe breviore, plumbeo- aut castaneo- 
stramineo, puberulo auriculis parvis triangularibus sul^acutis saepe ad 
meros lobulos minimos aut ad callos reductis, circ. 10 utrinque, instructo, 
fronde ovata basi haud attenuata sed pinnis inferioribus valde deflexis, 
25 usque ad 35 cm. longa, 15 ad 20 cm. lata, acuminata, pinnata, pinnis 
infra remotiusculis, supra confertis alternis, inferioribus ad basin valde 
attenuatis, acuminatis, lanceolatis, sessilibus, supremis, adnatis, ca. 15 
utrinque infra apicem pinnatifidum recte patentibus, 10 cm. longis 
1() mm. latis, basi truncatis, inferioribus attenuato-cuneatis, usque ad 
mediam laminae partem incisis, ala 0.5 cm. lata relicta, lobis oliliquis 
subfalcatis pectinato-confertis, sinu fere nullo interjecto, obtusis, inte- 
gris, ca. 35 utrinque, 3 mm. longis, 2.5 mm. latis, nervis parum con- 
spicuis, 7 utrinque, una area costali et secunda sinu applicata, rhachi 
faciebus costis costulisque breviter pubescentibus, soris modiis parvis 
atrobrunneis, sporangiis laevibus, indusio minuto obscure griseo reformi 
mox evanido. Colore oliscure viridi, opaco, textura herbacea. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Lamao River, Mount Mariveles (1237 Borden) 
June, 1904; (6823 Elmer) November, 1904: Province of Rizal (66, 78 Fox- 
tvorthy) January, 1906: Province of Panipanga, Mount Arayat (493 Topping) 
Fobruary, 1904: Province of Tayabas, Mount Banajao (Loher) February, 1906. 
Palawan (571 Foxworthy) April, 1906. 

The frond has the configuration of that of P. sfigittaefolia, the base of the 
frond being abrupt and the pinnfse being replaced by reflexed and pointed auricles 
wliich occupy the stipe to the base. D. Bordenii however does not belong, like 
D. sagitfaefolia, in the group with D. pwrusitica, not having hairy sporangia. 
The rhizome is oblique, elongatcd, the roots strong, the scales very small 
lanceolate and twisted. 



PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS. 205 

32. Dryopteris moulmeinensis (Bedd.) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 278. Nephro- 
dium moulmemense Bedd. Ferns Brit. Ind. Correct. (1870) ; Hooker Synopsis 503. 

MiNDORO, Baco River (997 Merrill) April. 1903. Mindanao, Province of Zara- 
boanga (1613 Copeland) 1905; San Ramon {Copeland) May, 1904: District of 
Davao, Todaya (1240 CopcUnd) April, 1904: Lake Lanao, Canip Keitliley (117 
Mrs. Glemens) January, 1906. 

Tbroughout the Malayan Region. 

33. Dryopteris urophylla (Wall.) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 299. Pol})podium 
urophyllwii Wall. Cat. (1828) 229; Hook. Sp. Fil. 5: 9. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, ]\Iount Mariveles (6090 Leiberg) July, 1904: 
Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling (2025 Copeland) Marcb, 1906. Mindanao, 
Province of Surigao (223 Bolster) January, 1906: Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley 
(Mrs. Clemens) Marcb, 1906: District of Davao (952 CopcJand) April, 1904. 

Widelj' distributed in Malaya. 

Var. pustulosa CopeL MSS. pro specie. 

"Nearest A'. moulmeinense, from wbicb it diflers in the subbispid, rougb-pustu- 
lous surface" Copeland. 

LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Lamao River (218 Copeland) February, 1904. 

34. Dryopteris cuspidata (Blume) Meniscimn cuspidatum Blume Fil. Jav. 
102. t. J,o. 

:Mindoro, Baco River (168 McGi-egor) April-May, 1905. 

This is tbe typical form of Blume's species, of wliicb I bave identical material 
from Java, Tjipoes, leg. Raoihorski, and from Perak, leg. Hose, and difFers from 
tbe plant of nortbern India (Meniscimn longifrons Wall.) in its flesby-papyraceous 
texture, opaque, tbe areolse less numerous (8 to 12, rarely more) more or less 
concealed under tbe membranous epidermis and not costellate and prominent. 
Tbe proliferous sboots in tbe axils of the ujiper pinnae are also present in tlie 
Pbilippine plant, as indicated by Blume in tbe Javan form. 

Christensen in bis Index Filicum unites this species, althougb with doubt, 
with Dryopteris urophylla ; bowever tbe proliferation in Blume's species, and the 
membranous epidermis covering and in part concealing the areolae sharply 
distinguishes D. cuspidata from D. uropbylla. D. longifro-ns differs in having a 
very smootli sliining surface, tbe areolae in strong relief, and in tbe form of its 
pinnae whicb are elongated and witb tbeir margins nearly parallel. In regard 
to tbe elongated sori, I bave from Java a specimen witb tbem nearly round. It 
goes witbout saying tbat diagnoses alone are of little value in indicating tbe 
diflferences in forms and the sligbt cbaracters tbat distinguisli tliese undivided 
species of Dryopteris; cbaracters tbat strike the eye on examination of specimens 
are often diflicult to express in words in tbis and parallel cases. 

35. Dryopteris glandulosa (Blimie) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 812. 
Aspidium glandulosum Blume Enum. (1828) 144. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Bosoboso (964 Ramos) July, 1906; Mabacal (Loher) 
March, 1906: Province of Bataan, Moimt Mariveles. (427 Topping) May, 1904. 
Leyte (298 Cuming). Mindanao, Province of Zamboanga (1718 Copeland). 

Differing from tlie two preceding by its short erect rhizome wbich is not 
creeping. Tbe viilosity is slightly glandular. 

Sunda Islands and eastern Mabiya. 



206 ciiiiisT. 

;iC. Dryopteris lineata ( 15Iuiiie) C. Clii . Jiul. Fil. (1905) 275. Aspidium 
/mea/wu Blume Enuiii. (1828) 144. 

MiNDANAO, Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1218 Copeland) April, 190.5, 
700 m. alt. 

(Uabi^ous, the froiid not leduced at the base. It lias tlio appearance of 
Oyclopeltis semicordata, but the pinnai are less numerous, broader and not 
articulate. 

Malayan region. 

lil. Dryopteris Spenceri (Copeland MSS, Nephrodium) n. sp. 

Khizoinate elongato, radicoso, foliis pai^cis (3) stipite 20 ad 30 cm. 
longo rufostramineo, pennae anserinae crassitie, fronde 50 cm. et iiltra 
longa 12 cm. lata, oblonga, pinnata, pinna magna basi saepe petiolata 
12 cm. longa 3.5 cm. lata acuminata grosse lobata terminata, pinnis 
lateralibus sessilibuS;, oblongis, falcatis, breviter acuminatis, plus minus 
crenato-lobatis (lobis 5 mm. latis) 8 cm. longis, 2 cm. latis basi 
inaequalibus antice truncatis postice semicordato-rotundatis rhachimque 
tegentibus, et versus stipitem in auriculas breves trigonas numerosas 
(usque ad 10 utrinque) abeuntibus. Tota planta pube brevi griseo 
parce obsita, nervis manifestis prominulis, pinnarum lateralium ca. 
G utrinque 3 aut 4 areolas inter costam et marginem formantibus, 
nervis pinnae terminalis usque ad 12, saepe furcatis, et 10 areolas ciun 
areolis aliquot lateralibus (more Pleocnemiae) formantibus, soris numer- 
osis, 4 usque ad 10 utrinque, costulis approximatis saepe ovatis exindu- 
siatis. Textura Jierbacea, colore laete virente. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Todaya ( 1464 Copeland) October, 1904, alt. 800 
m.; Sibulan River (981 Copeland) April, 1904. A plant from San Ramon, 
MiNDANAO (Copeland s. n.) April, 1905, from about the same altitude as the 
above is distinguishable by its shorter and more numeroiis pinnse. 

A very hvrge species of the group of D. Stegnogramme ( Gymnogramme aspid- 
ioides Blume Fl. Jav. pl. 98.) but very diiferent from tliat species in having a 
large terminal pinna instead of a pinnatifid apex, and with auricles descending 
along the stipe. 

38. Dryopteris simplicifoiia (J. Sm.). Nephrodium simplicifolium. J. Sm. 
in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 411. 

A reduced insular form of the D. glandulosa typc. The plant small, the 
terminal pinna only developed, the lateral ones reduced to auricles. 

Leyte (315 Cuming). This is the plant figured by Hooker Sp. Fil. 1: 19. A 
sterile frond with the above specimen shows that it is a larger plant than 
figured and demonstrates clearly that the species is more especially a reduction 
of D. Spenceri. Specimens from San Ramon, Mindanao (Copeland) February, 
April, 1905, have the nerves iess pronounced, the terminal pinna narrower and 
the pubescence more grayisli; 

39. Dryopteris prolifera (Retz.) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 280. flemionitis 
prolifera Retz. Obs. 6 : 38. 

LuzoN, Province of Cagayan (133 BoUier) July, 1905: Province of Tayabas, 
Lucena (616 Whitford) August, 1904: Without locality (168 Cuming). 
Throughout the Malayan region to tropical Africa. 



rHILIPPINE SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS. 207 

40. Dryopteris rubida (J. Sni.) O. Kuntze Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1801) Sl:l. 
Ganioptcris rubidd J. Sni. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (iS-tl) 395; 1'ohjpodium 
rubidum Hook. Sp. Fil. 5: 12. 

• LuzoN (415 Cuming) -. Provinee of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (272 Whitford) 
May, 1904. Palawan ((575, 684 Foa>irorthi/) March, April. 190(). 

The base of the stipe, which is not deserilied by Hoohcr, is as thick as one'.s 
finger, covered witli subulate stiff dark brown scales 2 cni. long, and also pustular. 

Endemic to the Pliilippines. 

41. Dryopteris triphylla (Sw.) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 298. Meniscium 
friphi/Uum S\v. in Schrad. Journ. 1800^: 16. 

LuzoN (11609 W(irburg). Leyte (299 Cuming). Negros (7(i Cujwhind) ; 
Gimagaan River ( l(iO(i Wliitford) May, 1906. 
Malayan region. 

Var. elata n. var. 

Majus, 60 cm. et ultra alta, pinnis saepius 5, reniotis fere lanceolatis 
valde elongato-candatis, soris brevibus non junctis. 

Negros, Gimagaan River (1608 Whitford) May, 1906. Luzox. Province of 
Rizal, Mabacal {Loher) March, 1906; Angilog (Loher) March. 1906. 

11. LASTREA ( including P/iejrop^em ) . 

42. Dryopteris Loheriana (Christ) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 275. Aspidium 
Loherianum Christ. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6 (1898) 191. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, Montalban (Loher) October, 1890; Mount Batay 
(Lohcr) April, 1905: Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Lohcr) April, 
1906: Province of Pampanga, Mount Arayat (3908 Merrill) October, 1904: Dis- 
trict of Lepanto, Balili ( l^lOh Copeland) November, 1905. 

This species, whicli lias all tlie appearances of a Lastrea, sometimes has the 
basal nerves joined. 

Endemic to the Pliilippines. 

43. Dryopteris stenobasis C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 294. Lastrea aitenuata 
J. Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 412. 

Samar (327 Cumiiig). ' 

Tliis species presents in the greatest degree the reduction of the lower pinnae, jy CWevwt/i 
a character common to so many of the Philippine species. Tlie jjosition of the - / 

species, witli its numerous nerves in tlie very narrow iobes, is uncertain and /f 
seems to approach Nejyhrodiuni. 

Endemic. 

44. Dryopteris orientalis (Gmel.) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 281. Polgpodiuin 
nrienfalc Gmel. Syst. 2: 1312. 

Var. Webbiana (Hook.) Xcphrodium Wcbhianum Hook. Sp. Fil. 4: 85. 

Difl'ers from D. oric-ntalis (Polypodium pectinatum Forsk. and .\spidium 
albopuiictafum Bory) in iacking tiie calcareous coating on the u|)per surface 
and the lobes more liorizontal and more angular, but it is not more than a 
variety of tlie African species. It is found also in Aniboina and the Viti Islands, 
and appears unexpectedly in the Piiilippines. The Ishind of R^nnion is the 
intermediate place in its distrihution. 

MiNDANAO, Province of Zainboanga, San Ramon (1712 Copcland) April, 1905, 
alt. 850 m. 

Eastern Malayan region, rare and widelj' distributed. 



208 CIIRTST. 

4r). Dryopteris Beddomei (Bakor) O. Ktze. llev. ({cii. Pl. 2 (18!)1) 812. 
Neplirodiiiiih licddoiiiei Bakcr Synopsis 207. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (6491 Elmer) June, 1904; (.331 Topping) 
.Taiuuiry, 1908; (4941, .5089 Vurran) August, 190G; (1818 Copeland) Ootober, 
190.''); (Dr. Po7id) Marcli, 1904; Tilad (Loher) February, 1904: Mount Tonglon 
(MnO Curran) Augaist, 190(j. 

British India, China and Malaya. 

40. Dryopteris immersa (Blunie) O. Ivtze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 813. 
Aspidium immersum Blvune Enum. (1828) liiC. 

LuzoN (72 Cuming) ''Lastrea verruoosa J. Sm." in Hook. Journ. P>ot. 3 (1841) 
412. MiNDANAO, District of Davao (095 Copeland) Marcli, 1904: Province of . 
Zaniboanga, San Ramon (1.574 Copeland) December, 1904. 

Malaya. 

Var. ligulata (J. Sm.) Lastrea Ugulata J. Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 
(1841) 412. Aspidium ligulatum Mett. Aspid. no. 213. 

Cebu (343 Cuming) "Lastrea ligulata J. Sm." 1. c. 

In examining the above authentic specimen I find but slight differences 
between it and D. immersa. The racliis is atroviolaceous rather than of a pale 
straw color such as is usually the case with the latter species. 

47. Dryopteris Motleyana (Hook.) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 278. Nephro- 
dium Motleyanum Hook. Syn. 206. 

Negbos, Gimagaan River (93 Copeland) January, 1904; (1485 Whitford) 
May, 1906. Mindanao, Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1713 Copeland) 
April, 1905. Palawan (541 Foxworthy) April, 1906. 

Sunda Islands, and probably other ishinds in the Malayan region. 

48. Dryopteris Luerssenii (Harringt.) C. Chr. Ind. (1905) 276. Nephro- 
dium Luerssenii Harringt. in Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 16 (1877) 29. 

Ab Aspidium xylode Kunze differt textura magis eoriacea, segmentis 
acutioribus, ala costali latiore, soris costalibus mox faciem inferiorem 
segmenti imple^tibus, basi frondis vix aut abrupte attenuata. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (Dr. Pond) March, 1904; (181, 236, 214 
Topping) .Tanuary, February, 1903; (6514, 0515 Elmer) June, 1904: Distriet of 
Lepanto (1910 Copeland) November, 1905. 

Endemic to the Philippines. 

49. Dryopteris Foxii (Copeland MSS. Nephrodium) n. sp. 

I transcribe here the manuscript diagnosis of the author: 
"Bhizomate breve repente vel adscendente, stipitibus confertis 5 ad 10 
cm. altis, stramineis, glabris, facie superiore canaliculatiS;, fronde lan- 
ceolata 20 ad 30 cm. alta^, 6 ad 9 cm. lata utrinque angustata, bipinnata, 
pinnis lanceolatis, acuminatis, adscendentibus, infimis remotis minutis, 
pinnulis inferioribus lineari-lanceolatis, 8 mm. longis, 1 ad 1.5 mm. 
latis, acutis, obscure dentatis, adnatis, remotis, sequentibus confluentibus 
demum in caudam subserrantam coadunatis, membranaceis, supra glabris, 
infra sparse pubescentibus, pilis albis, brevibus, venulis in pinnulis 
maximis plerumque utrinque 5, soris medialibus indusiis reniformibus 
glabris, subpersistentibus." 



PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS. 209 

"A representative of the ehiefly American groiip of Nephrodium opposiinm 
(Sw.) Diels {N. conterminum Desv.) from whicli it diflers mostly in the medial 
instead of submarginal sori. It is very coramon on rocky banks submerged 
during floods." 

jNIindanao, District of Davao, Catalonan (940 Copeland) April, 1904; Davao 
(Gopeland) April, 1904: Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1555 Copeland) 
December, 1904. Luzon, Province of Rizal, Bosoboso (1084 Ramos) July, 1900; 
Arambibi River (Loher) March, 1893; Montalban (Loher) 1900: Province of 
Batangas, Santo Tomas (2000 Copeland) February, 1900: Province of Benguet. 
Baguio (107, 258 Topping) January, 1903; Sablan (6178 Elmer) April, 1904; 
Baguio (5010 Curran) August, 1906; (6577 Elmer) Jime, 1904: Province of 
Cagayan (Warburg) ; (119 Bolster) July, 1905: Manihv (Rothdauscher) 1879 
in Herb. Monac: Province of Zambales, Pinatubo (Loher) February, 190G. 

This species has been knoun to me for a long time, but was considered as 
Lastrea UguUita J. Sm. It is described here from the most common form — that 
is, rather small specimens — although sometimes it attains a size three times 
as large as is indicated in the diagnosis, and even larger. The plant can always 
be readily distinguished from D. immersa and D. ligulata (which to me are not 
specifically distinct) by its very sharp segments, which are cmieate and deeurrent, 
and by its light green color and more firm texture. Its aflinity is with D. 
Koordersii Christ * of Celebes, but that species is distinguishable by its very 
peculiar indusium which I have described as follows : "Indusio subgloboso lateral- 
iter inhaerente duro crustato vakle convexo brunneo nitido adiapliano sorum 
margine deflexo (more Matoniw) tegente." 

50. Dryopteris quadriaurita n. sp. 

Ehizomate uti videtur obliquo coma squamarum subulatarum fere 1 
cm. loiigarum rigidarum opacarum castanearum coronato, frondibus sub- 
solitariis aut paucis, stipite 33 cm. longo nudo griseo-stramineo tereti 
pennae corvinae crassitie, fronde 35 cm. longa 24 cm. lata deltoideo- 
oblonga versus basia vix attenuata, pinnis ca. 15 utrinque infra apicem 
pinnatifiduni sessilibus inferioribus oppositis, infimis declinatis, acumi- 
natis 13 cm. longis, 2.5 cm. latis ad rliachim incisis horizontalibus remo- 
tiusculis, pinnulis linearibus, sinu acuto interjecto, acutis, integris, 14 
mm. longis, 3 mm. latis, inferioribus liberis, falcatis, infimis rhachi 
incumbentibus auctis incisis stipulaceis, costis brevissime puberulis, cum 
costulis stramineis, nervis liberis sitnplicibus obliquis 8 ad 10 utrinque, 
soris impressis mediis minutis exindusiatis. Textura coriacea, rigida, 
colore laete virente. 

MiNDANAO, Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1714, 1713 Copeland) April, 
1905, alt. 850 m. 

A species with the appearance of Pteris quadriaurita Retz., the fronds not 
fasciculate, bipinnate, deltoid-oblong, the.pinnae cut to the costa and furnished 
at the base With incised stipules, the pinnules c^riaceous, linear. their margins 
entire, tlie nerves siniple, the .sori small. It dift'ers from D. patens in its narrow 
linear segments. 



^o" 



^ Ann. Jard. Bof. Buitenz. 15": 128. 



210 CHKIST. 

51. Dryopteris flaccida (Bluiiio) O. Kt/c. Rov. (ion. i'l. 2 (ISOl) 812. A.ipi- 
(lium /Idecidiiin Bliinio l^^miiii. (1828) Kil. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguot, Baguio (157, 171 Topping) January, 1903. 
Malaya. 

52. Dryopteris erubescens (Wall.) C. Chr. Tnd. Fil. (1905) 20,3. Pohjpo- 
dium criihescciin Wall. 

MiNDANAo, Province of Zamboanga, San Ranion (1(512 Oopelnnd) January, 
1905, at 75 ni. alt. 
Malaya. 

53. Dryopteris Metteniana Hioronjnn. M8S. n. sp. .siib Neplirodiuin. Laslrea 
fipcctabiHs J. Sni. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 412, sed Aspidium spcctahile 
Blume Enum. 158 D. syriiiaticam aniplectitur. 

Differt a D. Syrmatico, cui similis dente in sium loborum posito, am- 
piitudine, pinnis fere sessilibus et pinnis basalibus postice egregie auctis 
bipinnatifidis, texture membranacea, colore atroviridi, soribus plurise- 
riatis. 

Ampla, nuda, stipite plumbeo-stramineo valido, fronde 70 cm. longa 
30 cni. lata ovata, acuminata, bi- et subtripinnatifida, pinnis patentibus 
remotis ca. 15 utrinque infra apicem pinnatifidum, inferioribus breviter 
petiolatis, reliquis sessilibus, versus basin postice attenuatis, ovato-oblongis 
supremis lanceolatis 18 cm. longis 4 cm. et ultra latis superioribus 
angustioribus caudato acuminatis, basi cuneato-truncatis subinaequalibus, 
usque ad mediam laminam incisis, lobis grossis sinu aperto rotundato 
separatis subfalcatis ovatis usque ad 3 cm. longis et 1 cm. latis serrato- 
crenatis acutiusculis, ca. 15 utrinque, dente in sinu posito, ca. 8 utrinque, 
pinnis infimis deorsum valde auctis, pinnula basali deflexa 7 cm. longa 
profunde lobata, costis costulisque prominentibus stramineis, nervis 
tenuibus bi-aut trifurcatis, liberis, soris mediis minutis brunneis, ramo 
anteriore basali nervulorum impositis saepe biseriatis, 6 aut 7 utrinque, 
indusio minimo rudimentario griseo. Te"xtura tenuiter membranacea, 
colore atroviridi. 

LuzoN (13 Cuming) "Lastrea spectabilis J. Sm." in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 
412. MiNDANAO, Mount Batangan (Warburg) 1888. The same specios is found 
in Celebes, Maros Bantimurung, South Celebes (16586 Warburg) ; Takale Kadjo, 
500 m. alt. {Sarasin) February, 1895. 

54. Dryopteris Syrmatica (Willd.) 0. Ktzo. Rev. Con. Pl. 2 (1891) 814. 
Aspidium ^yrmaticum Willd. Sp. Pl. 5: 237. 

Var. petioiosa n. var. 

Pinnis longe petiolatis (petiolo 1 cm. et ultra) supremis solummodo 
subsessilibus, 16 cm. longis, 3.5 cm. latis, soris mediis minutis indusio 
grjseo tectis. Rhizomate monente Copeland erecto terrestri. 

LuzoN (14 Guming) "Lastrea spectabilis J. Sm." in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 
(1841) 412: Province of Laguna, Los Banos {Alherto) May, 1905. Mindanao, 
Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (730, 1581 Copela/nd) May, December, 1904: 
District of Davao (953, 928, 609 Copeland) ; Mount Batangan (14122 Warburg). 

Tlie Pliilip])ino plant is distinguishablo from those of southorn (Hiina (leg. 



PHILIPPINE SPECIER OF DRYOPTERIS. 211 

Eenry) and India by its very long petioled pinnae and smaller size. The same 
variety has been found on Christmas Island, Straits Settlements (leg. Ridley) . 
The type is widely distributed in Malaya. 

55. Dryopteris Sagenioides (Mett.) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (I89I) 813. 
Aftpidium. tSayenioides j\Iett. Aspid. 11.3, No.,269. 

Leyte (.302 Cuming). Mindanao, Lake Lanao, Camp Keithley (386 Mrs. 
Clemens) March, 1906: District of Davao, Todaya (1238 Copeland) April, 1904. 
Eastern Malaya. 

56. Dryopteris Boryana (Willd.) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 255. Aspidium 
Boryanum Willd. Sp. PI. 5: 285. 

Forma jjinniilis ovatis ad tertiani aut qnartani partem solnmmodo in- 

eisis, aliter typica. 

LuzoN, District of Lepanto (1731 Copeland) Novemher, 1905, alt. 2,000 m. 
Widely distributed in the Malayan region, reaching to Japan. 

57. Dryopteris viscosa (J. Sm.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 814. 
Lastrea viscosa J. Sm. in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 412. 

Rliizomate crasso erecto semisupraterraneo stipitibus vetustis abunde 
obtecto nigricante, foliis valde numerosis dense fasciculatis, stipitibus 
rigidis pennae corvinae crassitie 12 aut 20 cm. longis, cum rhacbi pilis 
ochreo-griseis dense tomentosis et insuper squamis ovatis atrobrunneis 
0.3 cm. longis vestitis, fronde 25 ad 35 cm. longa, 8 ad 12 cm. lata 
oblonga, acuminata, basi ob aliquot pinnas breviores attenuata, binipin- 
natifida, pinnis 6 cm. longis, 1.5 cm. latis breviter acuminatis patentibus, 
infimis detlexis, remotiusculis, 20 ad 25 utroque latere infra apicem 
lobatum, sessilibus, fere usque ad eostam incisis, segmentis oblongis 
obtusis angulo acuto separatis ca. 15 utrinque, subcrenatis, nervis 6 
utrinque simplicibus, soris 1 mm. diametro, mediis rufobrunneis, indusio 
persistente convexo coriaceo brimneo, costis costulis et facie imprimis 
inferiore pilis rigidis albidis pubescentibus. Textura carnosula, colore 
sicce atrobrunneo, opaca. 

MiNDANAO, District of Davao, Mount Apo (1022, 1044 Copeland) : (327 DeVore 
tC- Hoover) May, 1903. LuzoN, Province of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (1105 
Whitford) February, 1905. 

Malacca (401 Cuming) in herb. Bureau of Science. 

The affinity of this species is with D. polylepis (Fr. et Sav.) of China and 
Japan. It is characterized by its thick erect rhizome, its double villosity con- 
sisting of large blackish .scales and grayish-yellow pubescence, its somewhat 
rteshy texture, and its very large brown persistent coriaceous indusia. It haa 
the general appearance of a small member of the fdix nias group, but its nerves 
are simple. An alpine forra. 

At isolated points from Perak, Malacca and Borneo. 

58. Dryopteris erythrosora (Eaton) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 812. 
Aspidium erythrosorum Eaton in Parry, Narr. Exp. to China 2 (1856) 330. 

LuzoN, District of Lepanto, Bagnen (1929 Copeland) November. 1905, alt. 

2,000 m. 

This peculiarly Chinese and Japanese species was found previously in Luzon 
by Loher in 1894. Mount Tonglon, Province of Benguet, alt. 2.2,50 m. It is also 
found is Assam, leg. Mann. 



212 CIIRIST. 

5!). Dryopteris marginata (VVali.) ('liiil<e iii Tiaiis. Linii. Soc. 2: 521. l. 11. 
Aspidium marginatum Wall. Cat. (1828) 3G6. 

LuzoN, Distiict of Lepanto, Mount Data (190G Copelfmd) November, 190.5, 
alt. 1,800 m. 

A nieniber of the group of D. fiUx mas sensu latiori. 

Tlie discovery of this essentially Cliinese plant, also found in the Himalayan 
region in the Philippines, is signilicant of the eontinental influence in the flora 
of northern Luzon, indicated also by otlier ferns such as Dryoptcris varia, D. 
erythrosora etc. 

(iO. Dryopteris hirtipes (Blume) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. PI. 2 (1891) 813. 
Aspidium hirtipes Blume Enuni. (1828) 148. 

LuzoN, District of Lepanto, Mount Data (1887 Copeland) October, 1905: 
Province of Benguet, Baguio (6529 Elmer) June, 1904; (302, 303 Topping) 
.Tanuary, 1903. 

Cliina and Malaya. 

61. Dryopteris filix mas (Linn.) .Schott Gen. Fil. t. 9. Polyjmlium filix mas 
Linn. Sp. Pl. (1753) 1090. 

Var. parallelogramma (Kunze) Aspidium parallelogrammum Kunze Linnaea 
13 (1839) 146. 

LuzoN, District of Lejmnto, Mount Data (1875 Copeland) October, 1905, alt. 
2,250 m. 

The tropical variety of the European species, closest to the variety paleacea 
Moore; also in Celebes (leg. Sarasin). 

Widely distributed in the Tropics of both hemispheres. 

62. Dryopteris heieopteroides n. sp. 

Ehizomate brevi radicoso crasso^ foliis fasciciilatis stipite basi incras- 
sito brunneo squamis pallide brunneis diaphanis subulatis 0.5 cm. longis 
vestito, stipite rufostramineo, folii sterilis 6 cm. longo parce fibrilloso, 
planta aliter nuda, fronde deltoidea 16 cm. longa et fere aequilata, bipin- 
natifida, pinnis approximatis, ca. 10 infra apicem lobatum infimis maxi- 
mis petiolulatis profunde ad alam angustam pinnatisectis, 8 cm. longis basi 
3.5 cm. latis oblongis obtusis, segmentis ovato-rhombeis obtusis ca. 8 aut 
10, infimis maximis 2 cm. longis 1 cm. latis obtusis grosse et irregulariter 
crenato-serrulatis, pinnis superioribus sessilibus et adnatis, grosse lo- 
batis, lobis obtusis trigono-arcuatis, nervis inconspicuis in lobis pin- 
natis et furcatis, folia fertili longins (17 cm.) stipitata, fronde deltoidea 
10 cm. longa, 7 cm. lata, piimis ca. 8 utrinque, remotis, segmentis rhombo- 
obtusis, aequalibus, subintegris, 1 cm. longis, 0.5 cm. latis soris fere mar- 
ginalibus, confertis, ca. 4 utrinque, ochraceis, 1 ad 2 mm. latis, indusio 
pallido reniformi Inillato subpersistente. Textura subcoriaeea, omnino 
D. cochleatae aut D. chryocomae, colore pallide viridi, opaco. 

LuzoN, Provinee of Benguet, Bued River (1837a Copeland) October, 1905, alt. 
1,100 m. 

The affinity of this species is with D. filix mas, and more particularly with 
Nephrodium cochleatum Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 6, by its dimorphism. The pinniTi 
of the fertile fronds are mucli more reduced tlian those of the sterile ones. The 



PHILIPPINB SPECIES OF DKYOPTERIS. 213 

plaiit is small (ahvays ?), with deltoid fronds, the sterile oiics irregularly lobed. 
It has the appearance of tlie fornia Heleojjteris of D. filix mas. The presence of 
this member of the filix mas gioup augments thc continental and tcmperate 
element in the mountains of northern Luzon, already known to be of considerable 
magnitude. 

63. Dryopteris Balabacensis n. sp. 

Ampla, stipite pennae anserinae crassitie, 55 cni. longo, angiilosa, 
nuda uti tota planta, cum rhachibus rufocastanea sive rufostraminea, 
fronde tripinnata deltoidea 50 cm. longa et aequaliter aut latiore, basi 
tripartita, pinnis 8 ad 10 infra apicem pinnatifidem valde remotis 
(primo interstitio 14 cni. longo) petiohitis, petiolo infimarum pinnarum 
5 cm. longo, pinnis infimi' 30 cm. et ultra longis basi 25 cm. latis, 
deltoideis, postice acutis, pinnuhi infima posteriore 13.5 cm. longa 
et 7 cm, lata, pinnulis iii incisolobatis, ovato-oblongis 2 cm. latis 4 ad 5 
cm. longis obtuse lobatis, pinnis sui^erioribus sessilibus oblongis acumi- 
natis, ad basin usque ad costam incisis versus apicem lobatis, lobis 
extremis postice decurrentibus, oblongis acutiusculis, 8 mm. latis sinubus 
acutis dentatis, dentibus decumbentibus, nervis in lobis pinnatis et bi- 
aut trifurcatis, manifestis. Textura coriacea, colore ochreo-viridi, niti- 
dulo, costis rufostramineis faciebus glabris, soris minutis numerosis 
submarginalibus mediisve, indusio nigi*o coriaceo-carnoso renifornii mox 
convoluto persistente praeditis. 

Balabac (392 Mangubat) March to April, 1906. Palawan (098, 712, Fox- 
tvorthy) March to April, 1906. Sibuyan (25 McChegor) July, 1904. 

This species belongs to the D. sparsa group but is hirger than that species, 
its pinnfe long stipitate, the base of the frond strongly tripartite, the basal pinna> 
usually large and compound like the rest of the frond, stipe glabrous, indusium 
fleshy, convolute, black. It has the appearance of Sagenia, but the nerves are not 
united. 

64. Dryopteris sparsa (Don) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 813. Nephro- 
diimi sparsum Don. Prodr. Fl. Nepal. (1825) 6. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (282 Topping) .Tanuary, 1903. Palawan 
(672 Foxworthy) March to April, 1906. Mindanao, Province of Zamboanga, San 
Ramon (1727 Copeland) April, 1905. 

Widely distributed in tropical Asia. 

65. Dryopteris purpurascens (Blume) Ncphrodium purpurascens Bliune 
Enum. 169; Mett. in Ann. Lugd. Bat. 1: 227; Raciborski Ptor. Buitenz. 174, non 
Hook. Sp. Fil. 4. t. 262. 

Differt a D. sparso squamis hasalibus subulato-angustatis, frondc qua- 
dripinnatifida, pinnis infimis decompositis, magnitudine quadrupla. Icoii. 
Hook. cit. est D. sparsa. 

MixDORO, Mount Halcon (6101 Mcrrill) November, 1906. 
The species is also known from Java. 



214 CHKl.ST. 

0(5. Dryopteris subarborea (l?iik.) ('. dlir. Iiid. Kil. (liK).')) •2!)"). I^rplirddinm 
NuhorJiorruw Mak. iii .lourii. Jiiiiii. Soc. Moi. 24 (1887) 2r>!l. A'. ni.ofjapht/lhim 
}iak. 1. c. 22: 227. A'. incisum Copel. Polypod. riiilip. 26, iioii liook. Sp. Fil. 
4: 133 quod cst I). Boryana. 

MiNDANAO, Distiicl. of Diivao, Mouiit A[)o (113« (UypeUind) A|)ril, 10(»4; 
(lf)14a Copelond) October, 1!)04, alt. 1,800 m. LuzoN, Provincc of Bciiffuct, 
Hiiguio (Loher) 1897, alt. 1,400 m. 

Tlie Kiiine species has bccn fouud in Borneo, Sarawiik, lcg. l/(jse, 1894; Biitjiin, 
leg. ]\'orhurg ; Celebcs, Lokon, leg. Horosin No. 710, 18!)4. 

It is rclixtcd to D. filix mas, scnsu liitissinio, in spite of its c.\treii)cly dccoiii- 
pound frond and large size. In a\ithentic specimens from Siirawak the segmcnts 
are almost entire, while in those from other localities they arc strongly dentatc. 

()7. Dryopteris dissecta (Forst.) (). Ktze. Rev. (k-n. FI. 2 (1801) 812. 
Polypodivm dissectnm Forst. Prodr. 31. 

LuzoN, Province of Cavite, Mendez Nufiez (1207, 1311 Manf/ubot) August, 
1906: Province of Laguna, Los Bafios (Loher) January, 1006; Pagsiinjan (.513 
Topping) 1004: Provinee of Bataan, Mount Mariveles (369 Topping) May, 1004; 
(198 Whitford) May, 1004: without locality (36, 244 Cuming) "Lo.^trea mem- 
hranifolia .T. Sm." in Hook .Journ. Bot. 2 (1841) 412. Mindanao, District of 
Davao, Mount Apo (146.5a Copeland) October, 1004, alt. 1,200 m. 

A plant with blackish hairs issuing from pustules. 

Widely distributed in tropical Asia. 

68. Dryopteris obscura (F€e) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1801) 812. Phe- 
gopteris ohscura Fee Gen. Fil. 243; Clirist, Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6 (1898) 106. /. 5. 

LuzoN, Province of Laguna, Mount Maquiling (Loher) January, 1906: Prov- 
ince of Zambales, Mount Pinatubo (Loher) February, 1!)06: Province of Rizal, 
Montalban (Loher) March, 1003: Manila (Usteri) February, 1003. 

The same species is found in Annam, Quang Binh leg. (Judicre 1804, Herb. Mus. 
Paris 01, 126. 

69. Dryopteris Preslii (Biik.) 0. Ktze. Rev. (Jen. Pl. 2 (1891) 813. Nephro- 
dium, Preslii Baker Syn. Fil. 272. 

Baker's diagnosis is sufficiently clear to satisfactorily identify this pliint. 
It is an insular dwarfed forni that seems to be related to D. ohseura, from its 
general appearance, although smaller in all its parts. 

BoHOL (354 Cuming) "Lastrea spectahilis ,1. Sm." in Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 
(1841) 412. There has been an error, apparently, in copying the liibel, as 
Lastrea speotahilis J. Sm. = Dryopteris Hyrmatica, our specimen being entirely 
different from the latter species. (Baker indicates No. 255 Cuming as the type 
of Nephrodium Preslii.) 

Endemic. 

70. Dryopteris brunnea (Wall.) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (190.5) 255. Polypodium. 
hrunneum Wall. Cat. (1828) 333. P. distans Don Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 2. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Baguio (959 Bornes) M:iy, Jime, 1904: District 
of Lepanto, Bagnen (1931 Copeland) November, 1905, alt. 2,000 m. 
Widely distributed in tropical Asia. 

71. Dryopterls crenata (Forsk.) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 811. 
Polypodium crenatum Forsk. Fl. Aeg. Arab. 185. 

LuzoN, Province of Benguet, Twin Peaks (6480 FAmer) ,Tune, 1904; Baguio 
(6595 Elmer) June, 1904; Bugias (1851 Gopela/nd) October, 1905: Province of 
Rizal, Montalban (Loher) October, 1903. 

Widely distributed from China across tropical Asia ; Cape \^rde Islands. 



PHILIPPliNE SI'ECIES OF DUYOPTEUIS. 215 

72. Dryopteris setigera (Blume) O. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 813. 
Cheilanf hes setigera Bhime Enum. (1828) 138. 

LuzoN, without locality (1, 75, 412 Cuviinf/) "Polypodium trichodes Reinw." 
J. Sni. in Hook. .Tourn. Bot. 3 (1841) 394: Province of Rizal (1084 Ramos) 
July, 1906; Antipolo (Guerrero) June, 1903; Tanay (2266 Merrill) May. 1903; 
(90 Foxworthy) January, 1906: Province of Cavite, Mendez Nunez (135.5 Man- 
ffubat) Augrust, 1906: Province of Laguna, Cavinti (Loher) February, 1906: 
Province of Benguet. Daklan (1837 Copeland) October, 1905; Baguio (178 
Topping) January, 1903. Palawan (282 Bermejos) January. 1906. Mindanao, 
Province of Zamboanga (1614, 1691 Gopeland) March, 1904: District of Davao 
(611 Gopeland) March, 1904. 

I have previously indicated ' some Philippine speciniens as Phegopteris ornuta 
(Wall.) Bedd., which Loher found at Montalban and on Mount Maquiling. They 
now appear to me to be strongly developed forms of Dryopteris setigcra, and 
I can not identify the Pliilippinc form with certainty with D. ornata as represented 
bj' specimens from Darjeeling (7465 Gamble) 1897. 

Widely distributed in China and Malaya. 

73. Dryopteris setosa (Presl) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. (1905) 292. Lastrea setosa 
Presl Epim. (1849) 40. PoJypodium setosum Presl Rel. Haenk. 1: 27, non Sw. 
Phegopteris hirta Christ Bull. Herb. Boiss. 6: 195. 

LuzoN, Province of Rizal, near Montalban (Loher) 1897, in herb. Kew.. 
Endemic. 

74. Dryopteris intermedia (Blume) 0. Ktze. Rev. Gen. Pl. 2 (1891) 813. 
Aspidium intcrmedium Blume Enum. 161. Dryopteris rhodolepis C. Clir. Ind. Fil. 
(1905) 288, ex parte, nec Clarke Trans. Linn. Soc. 2: 526, yephrodium. 

LuzoN, without locality (80, 151 Guming) "Lastrea propinqua J. Sm." in 
Hook. Journ. Bot. 3 (1841) 412: Province of Bataan, Lamao River (1240, 1241 
Borden) June, 1904; (199 Whitford) May, 1904; (363, 370 Topping) May, 1904. 
Negros, Gimagaan River (1605 Whitford) IMay, 1906. Mindanao, Province of 
Zamboanga, San Ramon ( 1465c, 1765d, Copeland) April, 1905. 

Widely distributed in tropical Asia. 

Var. IVIannii (Hope) Lastrea Mannii Hope in Journ. Bot. 28 (1890) 145. 

Fronde facie fere D. filicis maris Europeae, valde elongata oblonga 
bipinnatifida pinnis regiilariter lobatis, lobis simplicibus, pinnis infimis 
sohimmodo bipinnitifidis et postice auctis. 

Mindanao. Province of Zamboanga, San Ramon (1588 Goprlqnd) January, 
1905; (1649 Copeland) February, 1905, alt. 500 m. 
Assam, leg Marm. 

Var. microioba n. var. 

Stipite rhachique purpureis, pilis atrorubris patentibus densissime 
tectis, pinnulis minoribus 1.5 ad 2 cm. longis et 0.5 cm. latis, lobis cou- 
fertis 6 utrinque, angustis 2 ad 4 mm. latis. 

MiNDANAO, Province of Zamboanga (1702 Gopeland) 1905, alt. 850 m. 
In general appearance quite different from the type. 

'Bull. Herh. Boiss. 6 (1898) 196. 



216 CIIKIST. 

75. Dryopteris rhodolepis (Clarke) Nephrodium rhodolepin (^larke in Trans. 
Linn. 8oc. 2: .^32«. i. 12. 

Major ma<i^is((ue eomposita quam D. intcrmcdia, j^ilis atropurj)ureis 
basi pustulatis fcre nullis sed s^iuaniis rufobrunneis subulatis, laneeolatis 
et ovatis mixtis, stipite rhachi costisquc alnmdc vestitis. 

LuzoN, District of Lepanto, Bagnen (1020 Copeland) Novembor, 1005. Min- 
UANAO, Province of Zamboanga (1773 Copeland) 1905, alt. 1,000 m. 

C. Christensen lias erroneously identified Dryopteris intermedia (Bl.) with 
D. rhodolepis (Clarke) in his index Filiciim, 288, as Clm~ke has expressed very 
clearly 1. c. 527, distinctive characters of the latter, "primary, secondary and 
tertiary rachises with ovate acute subadpressed hyaline rose-mauve scales." 

China and British India, Himalayan region. 

76. Dryopteris Copeiandi n. sp. 

Diifert a D. intermedia absentia pilorum atropurpureorum basi pustu- 
latorum, indumento squamato, fronde posticc non aucta, jnnnis angnstis 
minoribus, segmentis minoribus denticulatis. Potius D. spinulosae quam 
D. intermediae appropinquanda. Bhizomate iiti videtur obliquo pauca 
folia emittente, stipitc pennae corvinae crassitie rufostramineo, 30 cm. 
longo, cum rhachi costisque abundc squamulis minimis i setif ormibus 
strigillosis rufobrunneis obtecto nec non squamis ovatis obtusis 0.5 cm. 
et ultra longis et latis diaphanis dilute brunneis vestito, fronde deltoideo- 
oblonga 40 cm. longa 30 cm. lata tripinnata, pinnis ovato-oljlongis 
inferioribus breviter petiolulatis remotis (infimo intervallo 7 cm.) acumi- 
natis basi vix attenuatis, utrinque ca. 15 infra apiccm, pinnis infimis 
posticc vix auctis, pinnula basali posteriore scquente brcviore, pinnulis 
ca. 15 utrinque, approximatis, 4 cm. longis, 1.5 cm. latis, valde regularitcr 
fere usque ad costam pinnatis, segmentis ^^^ subinaequalibus, basi sub- 
decurrentibus, rhombeo-oblongis 6 mm. longis 3 mm. latis obtusissimis, 
10 utroque Laterc, regulariter dentatis, dentibus ca. 5 utrinquc acutius- 
culis, nervis pinnatis, furcatis, soris rufobrunncis numerosis ca. 3 utrin- 
quc, cxindusiatis, facicbus pilis albidis numcrosis pubescentibus, textura 
flaccide herbacea, colore laete virentc. 

LuzoN, District of Lepanto, Mount Data (1887 Copehnid) October, 1905, alt. 
2,250 m. 

77. Dryopteris Rizalensis n. sp. 

Ehizomatc brcvi crasso^ squamarum rigidarum 1 cm. longarum seti- 
formium brunnearum coma dcnse vcstito. Stipitibus subfasciculatis 
pennae corvinae crassitie, sulcatis, 25 cm. longis atrocastaneis squamis 
setiformibus atropurpureis patentibus flcxuosis G mm. longis dcnsc ves- 
titis, f ronde 32 cm, longa, basi 20 cm. lata elongato-deltoidea, basi bipinna-' 
tifida cacterum pinnata, pinnis falcatis acutis 7 ad 8 utrinquc infra apicem 
incisum, infimis petiolulatis remotis, basi postice auctis 12 cm. longis, 5 
em. latis dcltoideo-elongatis, caeteris lanceolato-oblongis 10 em. longis, 3.5 
cm. latis, superioribus decurrenti-adnatis, ad basin profunde, supra ad 



PHILIPPINE SPECIES OF DRYOPTERIS. 217 

mediam et tertiam partem lobatis, costis omnibus late alatis^ lobis obtusis 
subintegris, ca. 10 utrinque 1.5 ad 2 cm. longis 1 cm. latis, rhachi costis 
nervisque squamulis brevibus setiformibus aut lanceolatis bnmneis 
pubescentibus, nervis in lobis pinnatis furcatisque flexuosis, soris in 
lobis pluribus usque ad 6 utrinque medialibus minutis, 0.5 mm. latis, 
pallide fuscis, indusio reniformi flaccido griseo mox evanido. Textura 
l!ferbacea, colore pallide virente. 

MixDAXAO, Province of Zaniboanga, San Ramon (1(549 Copeland) Fcbruary, 
1905: District of Davao,, Mount Apo { 146.5b Copeland) October, 1904. A smaller 
form from Mabacal, Province of Rizal, Luzon {Loher) Marcli, 190(5. 

The affinity of this species is with Dryopteris intermedia and D. ohscura, but 
is less compound. thc basal pinnae being only bipinnatifiid, the pinnse and lobes 
broad. 



SUPPLEMENT. 

27a. Dryopteris granulosa (Presl) C. Chr. Ind. Fil. 209. Putypodiuin <jra- 
nulositm Presl Reliq. Haenk. 1 . 24 t. 4 f. 2. 1825. 

Ditfert a D. otaria (Kze. Mett.) pinnis crenato-dentatis nec profunde 
lobatis, dentibus integris nec spinuloso-serrulatis, nervis conspicuis fere 
onmibus junctis et nurvuhmi - rectum sursum emittentibus, soris minutis 
exindusiatis. Facie rugosa. D. otaria differt pinnis lobatis, lobis aris- 
tato-ciliatis aut serratis, nervis magis abhquis inconspicuis, inferiorbus 
solummodo junctis, soris majoribus manifeste indusiatis. Facie glabra. 

Palawan (863 Foxworthy) May, 1906, Balabac (413 Manguhat) March, 
1906. 

The same plant but larger from Indo-China leg, P. Eberhardt. 

54744 5 



PKEVIOUS PUBLICATIONS OF THE BUREAU OF GOVERNMENT 
LABORATORIES-Concluded. 



(Concluded froui gecond page of cover.) 

No. 32, 1905. — Biolof/ical Laboratory : I. Intestinal Ha?morrhage as a Fatal Complica- 
tion in Amoebic Dysentery and Its Association with Liver Abscess. By Richard P. Strong. 
M. D. II. The Action of Various Chemical Substances upon Cultures of AmcEbEe. By J. B. 
Thomas, M. D., Baguio, Benguet. Biological and Scruin Laboratories : III. The Pathology 
of Intestinal Amosbiasis. By Paul G. Woolley, M. D., and W. E. Musgrave, M. D. 

No. 33, 1905, Biological Laboratory. — Further Observations on Fibrin Thrombosis in 
the Glomerular and in Other Renal Vessels in Bubonic Plague. By Maximilian Herzog, 
M. D. 

No. 31,, 1905. — I. Birds from Mindoro and Small Adjacent Islands. II. Notes on Three 
Rare Luzon Birds. By Richard C. McGregor. 

No. 35, 1905. — I. New or Noteworthy Philippine Plants, IV. II. Notes on Cuming's 
Philippine Plants iu the Herbarium of the Bureau of Government Laboratories. III. 
Hackel, "Notes on Philippine Grasses." IV. Ridley, "Scitiminese Philippinenses." V. 
Clarke, "Philippine Acanthacete." By Elmer D. Merrill, Botanist. 

No. 36, 1905. — A Hand-List of the Birds of the Philippine Islands. By Richard C. 
McGregor aud Dean C. Worcester. 

The previous publications of the Bureau were given out as bulletins in serial number 
pertaining to the eutire Bureau. These publications, if they are desired, can be obtained 
by applying to the librarian of the Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I., or to the Director of 
the Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I. Correspondents will confer a favor by returning to 
the Bureau any previous publications which they may have in duplicate, as a number of 
bulletins are now out of print. 

LIST OF PREVIOUS PUBLICATIONS OF THE MINING BUREAU (NOW DIVISION 
OF MINES OF THE BUREAU OF SCIENCE). 

Iggo. — Descripcion flsica, geologica y minera en bosquejo de la Isla de Panay por 
D. Enrique Abella y Casariego, Inspector General de Minas del Archipi#lago. 

1890. — Memoria descriptiva de los manantiales minero-medicinales de la Isla de Luzon, 
estudiados por la comision compuesta de los Senores D. Jose Centano, Ingeniero de Minas 
y Vocal Presidente, D. Anacleto del Rosario y Sales, Vocal Farmaceutico, y D. Jos6 de 
Vera y Gomez, Vocal Medico. ,„.,.." . , , 

J893 — Estudio Descriptivo de algunas manantiales minerales de Fihpinas ejecutaao 
por la comisi6n formada por D. Enrique Abella y Casariego, Inspector General de Minas, 
D Jos§ de Vera y G6mez, Medico, y D. Anacleto del Rosario y Sales, Farmaceutico ; 
precidido de un prologd escrito por el Excmo. Sr. D. Angel de Aviles, Director General 
de Administraci6n Civil. , , ^ ,, 

J893 Terremotos experimentados en la Isla de Luzon durante los meses de Marzo y 

Abril de 1S92, especialmente desastrosos en Pangasinan, Uni6n y Benguet. Estudio ejecu- 
tado por D Enrique Abella y Casariego, Inspector General de Minas del Archipielago. 

IQOl. — The Coal Measures of the Philippines. Charles H. Burritt. 

ig02. Abstract of the Mining Laws (in force in the Philippines, 1902). Charles H. 

^^1902. BuUetin No. 1. — Platlnum and Associated Rare Metals in Placer Forraations. 
■ J90S.— Report of the Chief of the Mining Bureau of the Philippine Islands. Charles H. 

1903, BuUetin No. 2. — Complete List of Spani.sh Mining Claims Recorded in the Mining 
Bureau. ' Charles H. Burritt. ...,., „ , , 

1903 BuUetin No. 3. — Report on a Geological Reconnoissance of the Iron Region or 
Angat, Bulacan. H. D. McCaskey, B. S. „ „ „ ^ , 

190.', — Fifth Annual Report of the Mining Bureau. H. D. McCaskey^ 

igo'y' Sixth Annual Report of the Chief of the Mining Bureau. H. D. McCaskey. 

1905 BuUctin No. \. — A Preliminary Reconnoissance of the Mancayan-Suyoc Mineral 
Tfpp-inn Lenanto P. I. A. J. Eveland, Geologist. 

lTo5 BuUctin No. 5.— The Coal Deposits of Batan Island. Warren D. Smith, B. S.. 
M. A., Geologist. 

LIST OF PREVIOUS PUBLICATIONS OF THE ETHNOLOGICAL SURVEY (NOW 
DIVISION OF ETHNOLOGY, BUREAU OF SCIENCE). 

(For sale at Bureau of Printing.) 

Yol /.— The Bontoc Igorot, by Albert Ernest Jenks. Paper. P^4.50 ; half Morocco, PT. 
Voi. il. Part I.— Negritos of Zambales, by William AUen Reed. Paper, P1.25 ; half 

^°Vot'n!^Part 2 and Part S.— The Nabaloi Dialect, by Otto Scheerer. The Bataks of 
Palawan bv Edward Y. Miller. ( Bound also in one volume with Part 1, Negritos of 
ZaSes ) Pap^r. ?1 25 ; half Morocco, P3.75. Combined half Morocco, P5. 

Vol! Z/r.— Relaciones Agustinianas de las razas del Norte de Luzon, by Perez. Not 

""*t?<,j%#,"pa^," l^-Studrel in Moro History. Law. and-Religion. by Najeeb M. Saleeby. 
Paper. ?0.75 ; half Morocco, P3.25. 

1 The flrst four bulletins in the ornithological series were published by The Ethnological 
qurvev under the title "BuIIetins ot the Philippine Museum." The other ornithological 
?ublicatiJ)ns of the Government appeared as publications of the Bureau of Government 
Laboratories. 



The Philippine Journal of Science 



Edited by 
PAUL C. FREER, M. D., Ph. D. 

Co-editors: 
RICHARD P. STRONG, Ph. B., M. D., E. D. MERRILL, M. S. 



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